Lower Columbia River Fish Population Indexing Analysis 2014

Suggested Citation: Thorley, J.L. and Hogan, P.M. (2015) Lower Columbia River Fish Population Indexing Analysis 2014. A Poisson Consulting Analysis Report. URL: http://www.poissonconsulting.ca/f/1057520643.

The previous year’s interpretive reports are available online.

Background

In the mid 1990s BC Hydro began operating Hugh L. Keenleyside (HLK) Dam to reduce dewatering of Mountain Whitefish and Rainbow Trout eggs.

The primary goal of the Lower Columbia River Fish Population Indexing program is to answer two key management questions:

What are the abundance, growth rate, survival rate, body condition, age distribution, and spatial distribution of subadult and adult Whitefish, Rainbow Trout, and Walleye in the Lower Columbia River?

What is the effect of inter-annual variability in the Whitefish and Rainbow Trout flow regimes on the abundance, growth rate, survival rate, body condition, and spatial distribution of subadult and adult Whitefish, Rainbow Trout, and Walleye in the Lower Columbia River?

The inter-annual variability in the Whitefish and Rainbow Trout flow regimes was quantified in terms of the percent egg dewatering as greater flow variability is associated with more egg stranding.

Methods

Data Preparation

The fish indexing data were provided by Golder Associates in the form of an Access database. The discharge and temperature data were queried from a BC Hydro database maintained by Poisson Consulting. The Rainbow Trout egg dewatering estimates were provided by Irvine et al (2015) and the Mountain Whitefish egg stranding estimates by BC Hydro.

The data were prepared for analysis using R version 3.2.1 (R Core Team 2014).

Statistical Analysis

Hierarchical Bayesian models were fitted to the fish indexing data using R version 3.2.1 (Team 2013) and JAGS 3.4.0 (Plummer 2012) which interfaced with each other via jaggernaut 2.3.1 (Thorley 2013). For additional information on hierarchical Bayesian modelling in the BUGS language, of which JAGS uses a dialect, the reader is referred to Kery and Schaub (2011, 41–44).

Unless specified, the models assumed vague (low information) prior distributions (Kery and Schaub 2011, 36). The posterior distributions were estimated from a minimum of 1,000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samples thinned from the second halves of three chains of at least 1,000 iterations in length (Kery and Schaub 2011, 38–40). Model convergence was confirmed by ensuring that Rhat (Kery and Schaub 2011, 40) was less than 1.1 for each of the parameters in the model (Kery and Schaub 2011, 61). Model adequacy was confirmed by examination of residual plots.

The posterior distributions of the fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011, 75) parameters are summarised in terms of a point estimate (mean), lower and upper 95% credible limits (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles), the standard deviation (SD), percent relative error (half the 95% credible interval as a percent of the point estimate) and significance (Kery and Schaub 2011, 37, 42).

In general variable selection was achieved by dropping insignificant (Kery and Schaub 2011, 37, 42) fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011, 77–82) variables and uninformative random variables. A fixed variable was considered to be insignificant if its significance was \(\geq\) 0.05 while a random variable was considered to be uninformative if its percent relative error was \(\geq\) 80%.

The results are displayed graphically by plotting the modelled relationships between particular variables and the response with 95% credible intervals (CRIs) with the remaining variables held constant. In general, continuous and discrete fixed variables are held constant at their mean and first level values respectively while random variables are held constant at their typical values (expected values of the underlying hyperdistributions) (Kery and Schaub 2011, 77–82). Where informative the influence of particular variables is expressed in terms of the effect size (i.e., percent change in the response variable) with 95% CRIs (Bradford, Korman, and Higgins 2005).

Condition

The expected weight of fish of a given length were estimated from the data using a mass-length model (He et al. 2008). Key assumptions of the condition model include:

Only previously untagged fish were included in models to avoid potential effects of tagging on body condition. Preliminary analyses indicated that the annual variation in weight was not correlated with the annual variation in the relationship between weight and length.

Growth

Annual growth of fish were estimated from the inter-annual recaptures using the Fabens method (Fabens 1965) for estimating the von Bertalanffy (VB) growth curve (von Bertalanffy 1938). The VB curves is based on the premise that:

\[ \frac{\text{d}L}{\text{d}t} = k (L_{\infty} - L)\]

where \(L\) is the length of the individual, \(k\) is the growth coefficient and \(L_{\infty}\) is the mean maximum length.

Integrating the above equation gives:

\[ L_t = L_{\infty} (1 - e^{-k(t - t_0)})\]

where \(L_t\) is the length at time \(t\) and \(t_0\) is the time at which the individual would have had no length.

The Fabens form allows

\[ L_r = L_c + (L_{\infty} - L_c) (1 - e^{-kT})\]

where \(L_r\) is the length at recapture, \(L_c\) is the length at capture and \(T\) is the time between capture and recapture.

Key assumptions of the growth model include:

Length-At-Age

The expected length-at-age of Mountain Whitefish and Rainbow Trout were estimated from annual length-frequency distributions using a finite mixture distribution model (Macdonald and Pitcher 1979). Key assumptions of the length-at-age model include:

The model was used to estimate the cut-offs between age-classes by year. For the purposes of estimating other population parameters by age-class, Age-0 individuals were classified as fry, Age-1 individuals were classified as subadult, and Age-2+ individuals were classified as adult. Walleye could not be separated by life stage due to a lack of discrete modes in the length-frequency distributions for this species. Consequently, all captured Walleye were considered to be adults.

The results include plots of the age-class density for each year by length as predicted by the length-at-age model. Density is a measure of relative frequency for continuous values.

Observer Length Correction

The bias (accuracy) and error (precision) in observer’s fish length estimates were quantified using a model with a categorical distribution which compared the proportions of fish in different length-classes for each observer to the equivalent proportions for the measured fish. Key assumptions of the observer length correction model include:

The observed fish lengths were corrected for the estimated length biases before being classified as fry, subadult and adult based on the length-at-age cutoffs.

Survival

The annual survival rate was estimated by fitting a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model (Kery and Schaub 2011, 172–77) to inter-annual recaptures.

Key assumptions of the survival model include:

Site Fidelity

The extent to which sites are closed, i.e., fish remain at the same site between sessions, was evaluated with a logistic ANCOVA (Kery 2010). The model estimates the probability that intra-annual recaptures were caught at the same site versus a different one. Key assumptions of the site fidelity model include:

Length as a second-order polynomial was not found to be a significant predictor for site fidelity.

Capture Efficiency

The probability of capture was estimated using a recapture-based binomial model (Kery and Schaub 2011, 134–36, 384–88).

Key assumptions of the capture efficiency model include:

Abundance

The abundance was estimated from the catch and bias-corrected observer count data using an overdispersed Poisson model (Kery and Schaub 2011, 55–56). The model assumed that the capture efficiency was the mean estimate from the capture efficiency model and that the number of observed fish was a multiple of the number of captured fish. The annual abundance estimates represent the total number of fish in the study area.

Key assumptions of the abundance model include:

The annual distribution of each species was calculated using the shannon index of evenness (\(E\)) where \(S\) was the number of sites and \(p_i\) the proportion of the population belonging to the ith site.

\[ E = \frac{-\sum p_i \log(p_i)}{ln(S)}\]

Trends common to the fish index and environmental annual time series were identified using dynamic factor analysis (DFA) (Zuur, Tuck, and Bailey 2003) – a dimension-reduction technique designed for time-series data.

The fish index time series were the condition (Con), growth (Grw) length-at-age (Len), survival (Sur) and Abundance (Abn) by species (MW = Mountain Whitefish, RB = Rainbow Trout, WP = Walleye) and life stage (Sub = Subadult, Ad = Adult) or age (Age0, Age1).

The environmental time series were the mean (DisMe) and average hourly absolute difference (DisDi) in discharge at Birchbank, the average water temperature (TemMe) at Norns Creek by quarterly period and the annual proportional egg loss through dewatering (Regime) by species (MW = Mountain Whitefish, RB = Rainbow Trout).

The average hourly absolute discharge difference was calculated by differencing the mean hourly discharge time series and taking the average of the absolute differences. Mathematically this is equivalent to: \[ \frac{\sum |x_{1}-x_{2}| + |x_{2}-x_{3}| + ... + |x_{n-1}-x_{n}|}{n-1} \] where \(x_{1}\) is the discharge at the start of the time series and \(x_{2}\) is the discharge an hour later.

The October to December times series were lead by one year to account for the fact that they occurred after sampling and are expected to only influence the fish time series in the following year. Similarly, the Mountain Whitefish egg loss time series were also lead by one year to account for the fact that they occur over winter.

All time series were standardized prior to fitting the DFA model. Key assumptions of the model include:

Due to the rotation problem the underlying trends were indeterminate (Abmann, Boysen-Hogrefe, and Pape 2014). The similarities were represented visually by using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to map the distances onto two-dimensional space. The more similar two time series are they closer they will tend to be in the resultant NMDS plot.

Short-Term Correlations

To assess the short-term congruence between the yearly fish metrics and the environmental variables, the pair-wise distances between the residuals from the DFA model were calculated as \(1 - |\rho(x, y)|\) where \(\rho\) is the Pearson correlation and \(x\) and \(y\) are the two time series being compared.

The short-term similarities were represented visually by using NMDS to map the distances onto two-dimensional space.

Model Code

The JAGS model code, which uses a series of naming conventions, is presented below.

Condition

Variable/Parameter Description
bCorrelation Correlation coefficient between bWeightYear and bWeightLengthYear
bWeight Intercept of eLogWeight
bWeightDayte Linear effect of dayte on eLogWeight
bWeightLength Linear effect of length on eLogWeight
bWeightLengthDayte Effect of dayte on effect of length on eLogWeight
bWeightLengthYear[i] Effect of ith year on effect of length on eLogWeight
bWeightYear[i] Effect of ith year on eLogWeight
Dayte[i] Day of year ith fish was captured
eLogWeight[i] Expected log(Weight) of ith fish
Length[i] log(Length) of ith fish
sWeight SD of residual variation in log(Weight)
sWeightLengthYear SD of effect of year on effect of length on eLogWeight
sWeightYear SD of effect of year on eLogWeight
Weight[i] Observed weight of ith fish
Year[i] Year ith fish was captured
Condition - Model1
model {

  bWeight ~ dnorm(5, 5^-2)
  bWeightLength ~ dnorm(3, 2^-2)

  bWeightDayte ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
  bWeightLengthDayte ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)

  sWeightYear ~ dunif(0, 1)
  sWeightLengthYear ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bWeightYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightYear^-2)
    bWeightLengthYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightLengthYear^-2)
  }

  sWeight ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for(i in 1:length(Length)) {
    eLogWeight[i] <-    bWeight
                      + bWeightDayte * Dayte[i]
                      + bWeightYear[Year[i]]
                      + ( bWeightLength
                        + bWeightLengthDayte * Dayte[i]
                        + bWeightLengthYear[Year[i]]
                        ) * Length[i]

    Weight[i] ~ dlnorm(eLogWeight[i], sWeight^-2)
  }
}

Growth

Variable/Parameter Description
bK Intercept of log(eK)
bKYear[i] Random effect of ith year on log(eK)
bLinf Mean maximum length
eGrowth[i] Expected growth between release and recapture of ith recapture
eK[i] Expected von Bertalanffy growth coefficient in ith year
Growth[i] Observed growth between release and recapture of ith recapture
LengthAtRelease[i] Length at previous release of ith recapture
sGrowth SD of residual variation in Growth
sKYear SD of effect of year on log(eK)
Year[i] Release year of ith recapture
Years[i] Years between release and recapture of ith recapture
Growth - Model1
model {

  bK ~ dnorm (0, 5^-2)
  sKYear ~ dunif (0, 5)
  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bKYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sKYear^-2)
    log(eK[i]) <- bK + bKYear[i]
  }

  bLinf ~ dunif(100, 1000)
  sGrowth ~ dunif(0, 100)

  for (i in 1:length(Year)) {
    eGrowth[i] <- (bLinf - LengthAtRelease[i]) * (1 - exp(-sum(eK[Year[i]:(Year[i] + Years[i] - 1)])))

    Growth[i] ~ dnorm(eGrowth[i], sGrowth^-2)
  }
}

Length-At-Age

Variable/Parameter Description
Age[ii] Observed age-class of iith fish
bAge[ii] Effect of iith age-class on logit(pAgeYear)
bAgeYear[ii, jj] Effect of iith age-class within jjth year on logit(pAgeYear)
bDayte[ii] Effect of iith age-class on linear effect of dayte on eLength
bDayte2[ii] Effect of iith age-class on quadratic effect of dayte on eLength
bGrowthAge[ii] Growth of fish to iith age-class
bGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj] Growth of fish to iith age-class within jjth year
bLengthAgeYear[ii, jj] Effect of iith age-class within jjth year on eLength
eGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj] Total growth of fish to iith age-class in jjth year
eLength[ii] Expected length of iith fish
Length[ii] Observed length of iith fish
pAgeYear[ii, jj] Proportion of fish in iith age-class within jjth year
sAgeYear SD of effect of age-class within year on bAgeYear
sGrowthAgeYear[ii] SD of effect of age-class within year on fish growth
sLengthAge[ii] SD of residual variation in eLength of fish in iith age-class
Year[ii] Year in which iith fish was caught
Length-At-Age - Model1
model{

  for(ii in 1:nAge){
    bGrowthAge[ii] ~ dunif(10, 100)
    sGrowthAgeYear[ii] ~ dunif(0, 25)
    for(jj in 1:nYear) {
      bGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj] ~ dnorm(0, sGrowthAgeYear[ii]^-2)
      eGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj] <- bGrowthAge[ii] + bGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj]
    }
  }

  bLengthAgeYear[1, 1] <- eGrowthAgeYear[1, 1]
  for(ii in 2:nAge){
    bLengthAgeYear[ii, 1] <- bLengthAgeYear[ii-1, 1] - bGrowthAgeYear[ii-1, 1] + eGrowthAgeYear[ii, 1]
  }

  for(jj in 2:nYear){
    bLengthAgeYear[1, jj] <- eGrowthAgeYear[1, jj]
    for(ii in 2:nAge){
      bLengthAgeYear[ii, jj] <- bLengthAgeYear[ii-1, jj-1] + eGrowthAgeYear[ii, jj]
    }
  }

  for(ii in 1:nAge)  {
    bDayte[ii] ~ dnorm(0, 10)
    bDayte2[ii] ~ dnorm(0, 10)
    }

  sAgeYear ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(ii in 1:(nAge - 1)){
    bAge[ii] ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
    for(jj in 1:nYear){
      bAgeYear[ii, jj] ~ dnorm(0, sAgeYear^-2)
    }
  }

  for(jj in 1:nYear){
    logit(pAgeYear[1, jj]) <- bAge[1] + bAgeYear[1, jj]
    for(ii in 2:(nAge - 1)){
      pAgeYear[ii, jj] <- (1 - sum(pAgeYear[1:ii-1, jj])) * ilogit(bAge[ii] + bAgeYear[ii, jj])
    }
    pAgeYear[nAge, jj] <- (1 - sum(pAgeYear[1:nAge - 1, jj]))
  }

    for(ii in 1:nAge){
    sLengthAge[ii] ~ dunif(0, 50)
  }

    for(ii in 1:length(Length)){
    Age[ii] ~ dcat(pAgeYear[1:nAge, Year[ii]])
    eLength[ii] <-  bLengthAgeYear[Age[ii], Year[ii]]
                  + bDayte[Age[ii]] * Dayte[ii]
                  + bDayte2[Age[ii]] * Dayte[ii]^2
    Length[ii] ~ dnorm(eLength[ii], sLengthAge[Age[ii]]^-2)
  }
}

Observer Length Correction

Variable/Parameter Description
bLength[i] Relative inaccuracy of ith observer
ClassLength[i] Mean length of fish belonging to ith class
dClass[i] Prior value for the proportion of fish in the ith class
eClass[i] Expected class of ith fish
eLength[i] Expected length of ith fish
eSLength[i] Expected SD of residual variation in length of ith fish
Length[i] Observed fork length of ith fish
Observer[i] Observer of ith fish where the first observer used a length board
pClass[i] Proportion of fish in the ith class
sLength[i] Relative imprecision of ith observer
Year[i] Year ith fish was observed
Observer Length Correction - Model1
model{

  for(j in 1:nYear){
    for(i in 1:nClass) {
      dClass[i, j] <- 1
    }
    pClass[1:nClass, j] ~ ddirch(dClass[, j])
  }

  bLength[1] <- 1
  sLength[1] <- 1

  for(i in 2:nObserver) {
    bLength[i] ~ dunif(0.5, 2)
    sLength[i] ~ dunif(2, 10)
  }

  for(i in 1:length(Length)){
    eClass[i] ~ dcat(pClass[, Year[i]])
    eLength[i] <- bLength[Observer[i]] * ClassLength[eClass[i]]
    eSLength[i] <- sLength[Observer[i]] * ClassSD
    Length[i] ~ dnorm(eLength[i], eSLength[i]^-2)
  }
}

Survival

Variable/Parameter Description
bEfficiency Intercept for logit(eEfficiency)
bSurvivalInterceptStage Intercept for logit(eSurvival) by Stage
bSurvivalStageYear Effect of Year on logit(eSurvival) by Stage
eAlive[i, j] Expected state (alive or dead) of ith fish in jth year
eEfficiency[i, j] Expected recapture probability of ith fish in jth year
eSurvival[i, j] Expected survival probability of ith fish from j-1th to jth year
FirstYear[i] First year ith fish was observed
FishYear[i, j] Whether ith fish was observed in jth year
sSurvivalStageYear SD of effect of Year on logit(eSurvival) by Stage
StageFishYear[i, j] Stage of ith fish in jth year
Survival - Model1
model {

  bEfficiency ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  bEfficiencySampledLength ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)

   for(i in 1:nStage) {
     bSurvivalInterceptStage[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
   }

  sSurvivalStageYear[1] <- 0
  for(j in 1:nYear) {
    bSurvivalStageYear[1,j] <- 0
  }

  for(i in 2:nStage) {
     sSurvivalStageYear[i] ~ dunif(0, 5)
     for(j in 1:nYear) {
       bSurvivalStageYear[i,j] ~ dnorm (0, sSurvivalStageYear[i]^-2)
     }
   }

   for(i in 1:nFish) {
     eAlive[i, FirstYear[i]] <- 1
     for(j in (FirstYear[i]+1):nYear) {
       logit(eEfficiency[i,j]) <- bEfficiency + bEfficiencySampledLength * SampledLength[j]
      logit(eSurvival[i,j]) <- bSurvivalInterceptStage[StageFishYear[i,j-1]] + bSurvivalStageYear[StageFishYear[i,j-1],j]
      eAlive[i,j] ~ dbern(eAlive[i,j-1] * eSurvival[i,j])
      FishYear[i,j] ~ dbern(eAlive[i,j] * eEfficiency[i,j])
     }
   }
}

Site Fidelity

Variable/Parameter Description
bFidelity Intercept of logit(eFidelity)
bLength Effect of length on logit(eFidelity)
eFidelity[i] Expected site fidelity of ith recapture
Fidelity[i] Whether the ith recapture was encountered at the same site as the previous encounter
Length[i] Length at previous encounter of ith recapture
Site Fidelity - Model1
model {

  bFidelity ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
  bLength ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)

  for (i in 1:length(Fidelity)) {
    logit(eFidelity[i]) <- bFidelity + bLength * Length[i]
    Fidelity[i] ~ dbern(eFidelity[i])
  }
}

Capture Efficiency

Variable/Parameter Description
bEfficiency Intercept for logit(eEfficiency)
bEfficiencySessionYear Effect of Session within Year on logit(eEfficiency)
eEfficiency[i] Expected efficiency on ith visit
eFidelity[i] Expected site fidelity on ith visit
Fidelity[i] Mean site fidelity on ith visit
FidelitySD[i] SD of site fidelity on ith visit
Recaptures[i] Number of marked fish recaught during ith visit
sEfficiencySessionYear SD of effect of Session within Year on logit(eEfficiency)
Session[i] Session of ith visit
Tagged[i] Number of marked fish tagged prior to ith visit
Year[i] Year of ith visit
Capture Efficiency - Model1
model {

  bEfficiency ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)

  sEfficiencySessionYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nSession) {
    for (j in 1:nYear) {
      bEfficiencySessionYear[i, j] ~ dnorm(0, sEfficiencySessionYear^-2)
    }
  }

  for (i in 1:length(Recaptures)) {

    logit(eEfficiency[i]) <- bEfficiency + bEfficiencySessionYear[Session[i], Year[i]]

    eFidelity[i] ~ dnorm(Fidelity[i], FidelitySD[i]^-2) T(0, 1)
    Recaptures[i] ~ dbin(eEfficiency[i] * eFidelity[i], Tagged[i])
  }
}

Abundance

Variable/Parameter Description
bDensity Intercept for log(eDensity)
bDensitySite Effect of Site on log(eDensity)
bDensitySiteYear Effect of Site within Year on log(eDensity)
bDensityYear Effect of Year on log(eDensity)
bVisitType Effect of VisitType on Efficiency
eDensity[i] Expected density during ith visit
eDispersion Overdispersion of Fish
Efficiency[i] Survey efficiency during ith visit
Fish[i] Observed count during ith visit
ProportionSampled[i] Proportion of site surveyed during ith visit
sDensitySite SD of effect of Site on log(eDensity)
sDensitySiteYear SD of effect of Site within Year on log(eDensity)
sDensityYear SD of effect of Year on log(eDensity)
sDispersion SD of overdispersion term
Site[i] Site of ith visit
SiteLength[i] Length of site during ith visit
VisitType[i] Survey type (catch versus count) during ith visit
Year[i] Year of ith visit
Abundance - Model1
model {
  bDensity ~ dnorm(5, 5^-2)

  bVisitType[1] <- 1
  for (i in 2:nVisitType) {
    bVisitType[i] ~ dunif(0, 10)
  }

  sDensityYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bDensityYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDensityYear^-2)
  }

  sDensitySite ~ dunif(0, 2)
  sDensitySiteYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nSite) {
    bDensitySite[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySite^-2)
    for (j in 1:nYear) {
      bDensitySiteYear[i, j] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySiteYear^-2)
    }
  }

  sDispersion ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (i in 1:length(Fish)) {
    log(eDensity[i]) <- bDensity + bDensitySite[Site[i]] + bDensityYear[Year[i]] + bDensitySiteYear[Site[i],Year[i]]

    eDispersion[i] ~ dgamma(1 / sDispersion^2, 1 / sDispersion^2)
    Fish[i] ~ dpois(eDensity[i] * SiteLength[i] * ProportionSampled[i] * Efficiency[i] * bVisitType[VisitType[i]] * eDispersion[i])
  }
}
Variable/Parameter Description
bDistance[i,j] Euclidean distance between ith and jth Variable
bTrendYear[t,y] Expected value for tth trend in yth Year
eValue[v,y,t] Expected standardised value for vth Variable in yth Year considering tth trends
sTrend SD in trend random walks
sValue SD for residual variation in Value
Value[i] Standardised value for ith data point
Variable[i] Variable for ith data point
Year[i] Year of ith data point
Z[v,y] Expected weighting for vth Variable in yth Year
model{

  sTrend ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for (t in 1:nTrend) {
    bTrendYear[t,1] ~ dunif(-1,1)
    for(y in 2:nYear){
      bTrendYear[t,y] ~ dnorm(bTrendYear[t,y-1], sTrend^-2)
    }
  }

  for(v in 1:nVariable){
    for(t in 1:nTrend) {
      Z[v,t] ~ dunif(-1,1)
    }
    for(y in 1:nYear){
      eValue[v,y,1] <- Z[v,1] * bTrendYear[1,y]
      for(t in 2:nTrend) {
        eValue[v,y,t] <- eValue[v,y,t-1] + Z[v,t] * bTrendYear[t,y]
      }
    }
  }

  sValue ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for(i in 1:length(Value)) {
    Value[i] ~ dnorm(eValue[Variable[i], Year[i], nTrend], sValue^-2)
  }

  for(i in 1:nVariable) {
    for(j in 1:nVariable) {
      bDistance[i,j] <- sqrt(sum((Z[i,]-Z[j,])^2))
    }
  }
}

Results

Model Parameters

The posterior distributions for the fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011 p. 75) parameters in each model are summarised below.

Condition - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeight 5.43202 5.40935 5.45443 0.01145 0 0.0010
bWeightDayte -0.01408 -0.01863 -0.00991 0.00217 31 0.0010
bWeightLength 3.15480 3.09620 3.20430 0.02700 2 0.0010
bWeightLengthDayte -0.00383 -0.01466 0.00810 0.00581 300 0.4771
sWeight 0.15564 0.15365 0.15777 0.00103 1 0.0010
sWeightLengthYear 0.11343 0.07683 0.16857 0.02452 40 0.0010
sWeightYear 0.04737 0.03280 0.06837 0.00939 38 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Condition - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeight 5.93291 5.92213 5.94329 0.00569 0 0.001
bWeightDayte -0.00396 -0.00682 -0.00100 0.00148 73 0.008
bWeightLength 2.92900 2.89692 2.95973 0.01530 1 0.001
bWeightLengthDayte 0.04578 0.03627 0.05452 0.00469 20 0.001
sWeight 0.11152 0.11005 0.11302 0.00078 1 0.001
sWeightLengthYear 0.05738 0.03662 0.08999 0.01427 47 0.001
sWeightYear 0.02380 0.01637 0.03528 0.00488 40 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Condition - Walleye

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeight 6.28395 6.26506 6.30392 0.00997 0 0.0010
bWeightDayte 0.01788 0.01494 0.02092 0.00153 17 0.0010
bWeightLength 3.22000 3.16780 3.27360 0.02610 2 0.0010
bWeightLengthDayte -0.01627 -0.03562 0.00289 0.01005 120 0.0999
sWeight 0.09913 0.09766 0.10066 0.00079 2 0.0010
sWeightLengthYear 0.10466 0.06692 0.16206 0.02379 45 0.0010
sWeightYear 0.04148 0.02907 0.06152 0.00844 39 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Growth - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bK -1.2048 -1.5017 -0.9398 0.1467 23 7e-04
bLinf 407.6700 401.6500 414.4300 3.2300 2 7e-04
sGrowth 12.9270 11.6910 14.3740 0.6840 10 7e-04
sKYear 0.4461 0.2302 0.8066 0.1451 65 7e-04
Convergence Iterations
1.04 4000

Growth - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bK -0.1902 -0.2932 -0.0613 0.0613 61 0.0014
bLinf 500.8000 495.4300 506.3200 2.8000 1 0.0007
sGrowth 29.7730 28.4550 31.2920 0.7280 5 0.0007
sKYear 0.2392 0.1534 0.3665 0.0597 45 0.0007
Convergence Iterations
1.04 1000

Growth - Walleye

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bK -2.7953 -3.1163 -2.4123 0.2005 13 7e-04
bLinf 855.1000 732.9000 987.0000 72.1000 15 7e-04
sGrowth 19.0060 17.4680 20.7440 0.8240 9 7e-04
sKYear 0.3341 0.1829 0.5509 0.0955 55 7e-04
Convergence Iterations
1.03 2000

Length-At-Age - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bAge[1] -2.0171 -2.4440 -1.5490 0.2250 22 0.0010
bAge[2] -0.7937 -1.2146 -0.2639 0.2351 60 0.0078
bDayte[1] 3.1560 2.6400 3.6770 0.2630 16 0.0010
bDayte[2] 2.3960 1.8470 2.9560 0.2850 23 0.0010
bDayte[3] 1.3680 0.8720 1.9050 0.2710 38 0.0010
bDayte2[1] -0.7014 -1.1140 -0.3124 0.2072 57 0.0010
bDayte2[2] -0.1293 -0.5348 0.2649 0.1996 310 0.5083
bDayte2[3] 1.1590 0.6220 1.6710 0.2710 45 0.0010
bGrowthAge[1] 98.8160 94.9540 99.9690 1.2480 3 0.0010
bGrowthAge[2] 96.4960 92.1720 99.7600 2.0580 4 0.0010
bGrowthAge[3] 98.9290 95.9890 99.9720 1.0650 2 0.0010
sAgeYear 0.8934 0.6917 1.1979 0.1277 28 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[1] 22.2460 17.8750 24.8640 1.9500 16 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[2] 9.8520 6.6160 14.8060 2.0880 42 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[3] 23.9120 21.5990 24.9690 0.9460 7 0.0010
sLengthAge[1] 14.1186 13.7330 14.5212 0.1964 3 0.0010
sLengthAge[2] 21.1020 20.3580 21.9210 0.3970 4 0.0010
sLengthAge[3] 45.5000 44.8110 46.2680 0.3800 2 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.08 20000

Length-At-Age - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bAge[1] -3.0744 -3.3730 -2.7692 0.1498 10 0.0010
bAge[2] 0.4898 0.1597 0.8234 0.1659 68 0.0010
bDayte[1] 0.8530 0.2570 1.4410 0.3010 69 0.0020
bDayte[2] 2.9410 2.3720 3.4660 0.2720 19 0.0010
bDayte[3] 0.2110 -0.3830 0.7800 0.3020 280 0.4947
bDayte2[1] 0.0940 -0.4290 0.6170 0.2830 550 0.7382
bDayte2[2] 0.7923 0.3325 1.2812 0.2461 60 0.0020
bDayte2[3] 0.2540 -0.2900 0.7910 0.2770 210 0.3421
bGrowthAge[1] 99.0670 96.2510 99.9770 0.9690 2 0.0010
bGrowthAge[2] 99.4290 97.8780 99.9810 0.5530 1 0.0010
bGrowthAge[3] 99.5010 98.1120 99.9920 0.5440 1 0.0010
sAgeYear 0.5897 0.4443 0.7867 0.0898 29 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[1] 16.9000 11.6300 23.4300 3.0900 35 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[2] 24.6750 23.8490 24.9910 0.3140 2 0.0010
sGrowthAgeYear[3] 24.8226 24.3900 24.9951 0.1700 1 0.0010
sLengthAge[1] 18.0360 17.1460 18.9980 0.4760 5 0.0010
sLengthAge[2] 38.2450 37.5830 38.9190 0.3410 2 0.0010
sLengthAge[3] 49.9233 49.7243 49.9975 0.0749 0 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.1 20000

Observer Length Correction - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 0.84855 0.83481 0.86114 0.00681 2 0.001
bLength[3] 0.79893 0.78635 0.81142 0.00636 2 0.001
bLength[4] 0.81988 0.81098 0.84049 0.00680 2 0.001
sLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 3.59370 3.22800 4.01110 0.19890 11 0.001
sLength[3] 2.02309 2.00081 2.08460 0.02326 2 0.001
sLength[4] 2.01283 2.00039 2.04996 0.01354 1 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.01 40000

Observer Length Correction - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 0.87327 0.86285 0.88502 0.00560 1 0.001
bLength[3] 0.76966 0.74565 0.79334 0.01175 3 0.001
bLength[4] 0.87359 0.86434 0.88246 0.00460 1 0.001
sLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 2.80700 2.15500 3.45800 0.33500 23 0.001
sLength[3] 4.36100 3.17400 5.53300 0.59600 27 0.001
sLength[4] 2.04270 2.00110 2.16750 0.04560 4 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.03 10000

Observer Length Correction - Walleye

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 0.91751 0.90139 0.93430 0.00867 2 0.001
bLength[3] 0.85530 0.82577 0.89388 0.01776 4 0.001
bLength[4] 0.92086 0.89945 0.93999 0.01036 2 0.001
sLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 2.70700 2.02200 4.41300 0.69100 44 0.001
sLength[3] 2.81400 2.02100 5.06600 0.81400 54 0.001
sLength[4] 3.18300 2.04500 4.69000 0.73400 42 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Survival - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -4.73400 -6.36900 -3.07600 0.88100 35 0.0010
bEfficiencySampledLength 0.00772 -0.00787 0.02259 0.00807 200 0.3390
bSurvivalInterceptStage[1] -1.11500 -1.63300 -0.57700 0.26700 47 0.0010
bSurvivalInterceptStage[2] 0.20800 -0.45000 0.89300 0.33400 320 0.5292
sSurvivalStageYear[2] 1.10200 0.51200 2.04700 0.39200 70 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.06 80000

Survival - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -3.12700 -3.74300 -2.52500 0.32600 19 0.0010
bEfficiencySampledLength 0.00559 0.00009 0.01096 0.00289 97 0.0456
bSurvivalInterceptStage[1] 0.08860 -0.19640 0.43690 0.16190 360 0.6230
bSurvivalInterceptStage[2] -0.47220 -0.78580 -0.14930 0.16470 67 0.0095
sSurvivalStageYear[2] 0.48970 0.26510 0.84170 0.15310 59 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 40000

Survival - Walleye

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -3.85700 -5.53000 -2.16200 0.86600 44 0.0010
bEfficiencySampledLength 0.00438 -0.00978 0.01852 0.00726 320 0.5199
bSurvivalInterceptStage[1] 0.37000 -9.13000 10.57000 4.97000 2700 0.9585
bSurvivalInterceptStage[2] 0.10700 -0.45500 1.02000 0.33100 690 0.7827
sSurvivalStageYear[2] 0.65900 0.26500 1.45200 0.32600 90 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.1 20000

Site Fidelity - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bFidelity -0.0300 -0.4017 0.3643 0.1951 1300 0.8667
bLength -0.0752 -0.4663 0.3196 0.1990 520 0.6960
Convergence Iterations
1 1000

Site Fidelity - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bFidelity 0.8157 0.6559 0.9766 0.0843 20 7e-04
bLength -0.3527 -0.5164 -0.1847 0.0836 47 7e-04
Convergence Iterations
1 1000

Site Fidelity - Wp

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bFidelity 0.7131 0.4206 1.0016 0.1474 41 0.0007
bLength -0.1098 -0.3932 0.1607 0.1463 250 0.4680
Convergence Iterations
1 1000

Capture Efficiency - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -4.8665 -5.3606 -4.494 0.2196 9 0.001
sEfficiencySessionYear 0.4380 0.0560 1.072 0.2620 120 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Capture Efficiency - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -5.2437 -5.6100 -4.9354 0.1689 6 0.001
sEfficiencySessionYear 0.3254 0.0575 0.7609 0.1850 110 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Capture Efficiency - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -3.3330 -3.4698 -3.2029 0.0677 4 0.001
sEfficiencySessionYear 0.3769 0.2572 0.5232 0.0664 35 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.01 10000

Capture Efficiency - Rainbow Trout - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -4.0469 -4.2146 -3.8918 0.0806 4 0.001
sEfficiencySessionYear 0.2415 0.0418 0.4559 0.1130 86 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 20000

Capture Efficiency - Walleye - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bEfficiency -4.4552 -4.7121 -4.2124 0.1278 6 0.001
sEfficiencySessionYear 0.6317 0.4017 0.9357 0.1328 42 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.01 10000

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensity 5.23050 4.80530 5.67640 0.22090 8 0.001
bVisitType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bVisitType[2] 3.52400 2.89800 4.27300 0.34800 20 0.001
sDensitySite 0.79980 0.64880 0.99690 0.09140 22 0.001
sDensitySiteYear 0.45780 0.39060 0.52320 0.03440 14 0.001
sDensityYear 0.79200 0.53850 1.21870 0.17270 43 0.001
sDispersion 0.51317 0.46829 0.55429 0.02255 8 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.02 80000

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensity 6.51500 6.14650 6.87570 0.19280 6 0.001
bVisitType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bVisitType[2] 4.29600 3.53000 5.26100 0.44100 20 0.001
sDensitySite 1.12070 0.91680 1.36950 0.11710 20 0.001
sDensitySiteYear 0.43110 0.37410 0.49460 0.03080 14 0.001
sDensityYear 0.40810 0.25760 0.68160 0.10500 52 0.001
sDispersion 0.53859 0.50496 0.57326 0.01785 6 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.08 40000

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensity 4.86340 4.54000 5.17690 0.16720 7 0.001
bVisitType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bVisitType[2] 3.64400 3.13600 4.22100 0.28200 15 0.001
sDensitySite 0.77470 0.63960 0.94180 0.07850 20 0.001
sDensitySiteYear 0.34730 0.29690 0.39990 0.02630 15 0.001
sDensityYear 0.34860 0.22740 0.56640 0.08670 49 0.001
sDispersion 0.39992 0.36967 0.42961 0.01537 7 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.05 10000

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensity 5.30300 5.0923 5.50690 0.10180 4 0.001
bVisitType[1] 1.00000 1.0000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bVisitType[2] 3.60200 3.1070 4.17700 0.27400 15 0.001
sDensitySite 0.69250 0.5624 0.84230 0.07060 20 0.001
sDensitySiteYear 0.26290 0.2061 0.31940 0.02840 22 0.001
sDensityYear 0.18570 0.1103 0.30540 0.05190 53 0.001
sDispersion 0.39761 0.3638 0.43281 0.01774 9 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.03 10000

Abundance - Walleye - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensity 5.42750 5.17610 5.71860 0.1321 5 0.001
bVisitType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.0000 0 0.001
bVisitType[2] 3.64200 3.03700 4.35300 0.3400 18 0.001
sDensitySite 0.38880 0.28380 0.51710 0.0597 30 0.001
sDensitySiteYear 0.21960 0.16680 0.26910 0.0263 23 0.001
sDensityYear 0.49340 0.33800 0.75740 0.1077 43 0.001
sDispersion 0.46791 0.43394 0.50448 0.0182 8 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.09 10000
Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
sTrend 0.3652 0.1745 0.5719 0.1081 54 0.001
sValue 0.8582 0.7778 0.9460 0.0422 10 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.07 10000

Figures

Condition

figures/condition/length.png
Figure 1. Predicted length-mass relationship by species.

Condition - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

figures/condition/Subadult MW/year.png
Figure 2. Predicted condition effect size for a 200 mm Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Condition - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/condition/Adult MW/year.png
Figure 3. Predicted condition effect size for a 350 mm Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Condition - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

figures/condition/Subadult RB/year.png
Figure 4. Predicted condition effect size for a 250 mm Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Condition - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/condition/Adult RB/year.png
Figure 5. Predicted condition effect size for a 500 mm Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Condition - Walleye - Adult

figures/condition/Adult WP/year.png
Figure 6. Predicted condition effect size for a 600 mm Walleye by year (with 95% CRIs).

Growth

figures/growth/growth.png
Figure 7. Predicted growth curve by species.

Growth - Mountain Whitefish

figures/growth/MW/year.png
Figure 8. Predicted growth for a 200 mm Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Growth - Rainbow Trout

figures/growth/RB/year.png
Figure 9. Predicted growth for a 200 mm Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Growth - Walleye

figures/growth/WP/year.png
Figure 10. Predicted growth for a 200 mm Walleye by year (with 95% CRIs).

Length-At-Age - Mountain Whitefish

figures/lengthatage/MW/density.png
Figure 11. Predicted length-density plot for Mountain Whitefish by life-stage and year.

Length-At-Age - Mountain Whitefish - Age-0

figures/lengthatage/Age-0 MW/year.png
Figure 12. Predicted length of an age-0 Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Length-At-Age - Mountain Whitefish - Age-1

figures/lengthatage/Age-1 MW/year.png
Figure 13. Predicted growth of an age-0 (to age-1) Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Length-At-Age - Rainbow Trout

figures/lengthatage/RB/density.png
Figure 14. Predicted length-density plot for Rainbow Trout by life-stage and year.

Length-At-Age - Rainbow Trout - Age-0

figures/lengthatage/Age-0 RB/year.png
Figure 15. Predicted length of an age-0 Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Length-At-Age - Rainbow Trout - Age-1

figures/lengthatage/Age-1 RB/year.png
Figure 16. Predicted growth of an age-0 (to age-1) Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Observer Length Correction

figures/observer/density.png
Figure 17. Observed and corrected length density plots for measured versus counted fish by observer and species.
figures/observer/bias.png
Figure 18. Predicted length inaccuracy relative to measured by observer and species (with 95% CRIs).
figures/observer/error.png
Figure 19. Predicted imprecision relative to measured by observer and species (with 95% CRIs).

Survival - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

figures/survival/Subadult MW/year.png
Figure 20. Predicted annual survival for a subadult Mountain Whitefish.

Survival - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/survival/Adult MW/year.png
Figure 21. Predicted annual survival for an adult Mountain Whitefish.
figures/survival/Adult MW/efficiencybank.png
Figure 22. Predicted annual efficiency for an adult Mountain Whitefish.

Survival - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

figures/survival/Subadult RB/year.png
Figure 23. Predicted annual survival for a subadult Rainbow Trout.

Survival - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/survival/Adult RB/year.png
Figure 24. Predicted annual survival for an adult Rainbow Trout.
figures/survival/Adult RB/efficiencybank.png
Figure 25. Predicted annual efficiency for an adult Rainbow Trout.

Survival - Walleye - Adult

figures/survival/Adult WP/year.png
Figure 26. Predicted annual survival for an adult Walleye.
figures/survival/Adult WP/efficiencybank.png
Figure 27. Predicted annual efficiency for an adult Walleye.

Site Fidelity

figures/fidelity/length.png
Figure 28. Probability of recapture at the same site versus a different site by fish length (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency

figures/efficiency/efficiency.png
Figure 29. Predicted capture efficiency by species and life stage (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

figures/efficiency/Subadult MW/session-year.png
Figure 30. Predicted capture efficiency for a subadult Mountain Whitefish by session and year (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/efficiency/Adult MW/session-year.png
Figure 31. Predicted capture efficiency for an adult Mountain Whitefish by session and year (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

figures/efficiency/Subadult RB/session-year.png
Figure 32. Predicted capture efficiency for a subadult Rainbow Trout by session and year (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/efficiency/Adult RB/session-year.png
Figure 33. Predicted capture efficiency for an adult Rainbow Trout by session and year (with 95% CRIs).

Capture Efficiency - Walleye - Adult

figures/efficiency/Adult WP/session-year.png
Figure 34. Predicted capture efficiency for an adult Walleye by session and year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance

figures/abundance/efficiency.png
Figure 35. Predicted count efficiency by species and life stage (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/ratio.png
Figure 36. Predicted count:catch ratio by species and life stage (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/obscount.png
Figure 37. Counts versus expected catches by species, stage and year. The lines indicate the predicted count:catch ratios.

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Subadult

figures/abundance/Subadult MW/year.png
Figure 38. Predicted abundance for subadult Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Subadult MW/site.png
Figure 39. Predicted density for subadult Mountain Whitefish by site (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Subadult MW/distribution.png
Figure 40. Predicted evenness of spatial distribution for subadult Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/abundance/Adult MW/year.png
Figure 41. Predicted abundance for adult Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult MW/site.png
Figure 42. Predicted density for adult Mountain Whitefish by site (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult MW/distribution.png
Figure 43. Predicted evenness of spatial distribution for adult Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Subadult

figures/abundance/Subadult RB/year.png
Figure 44. Predicted abundance for subadult Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Subadult RB/site.png
Figure 45. Predicted density for subadult Rainbow Trout by site (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Subadult RB/distribution.png
Figure 46. Predicted evenness of spatial distribution for subadult Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/abundance/Adult RB/year.png
Figure 47. Predicted abundance for adult Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult RB/site.png
Figure 48. Predicted density for adult Rainbow Trout by site (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult RB/distribution.png
Figure 49. Predicted evenness of spatial distribution for adult Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Walleye - Adult

figures/abundance/Adult WP/year.png
Figure 50. Predicted abundance for adult Walleye by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult WP/site.png
Figure 51. Predicted density for adult Walleye by site (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/Adult WP/distribution.png
Figure 52. Predicted evenness of spatial distribution for adult Walleye by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/dfa/fit.png
Figure 53. Standardised variables by year with the predicted values as black lines.
figures/dfa/mds.png
Figure 54. Non-metric multidimensional plot showing clustering of standardised variables by trend weightings.

Short-Term Correlations

figures/cor/data.png
Figure 55. Variable residuals by year.
figures/cor/mds.png
Figure 56. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot showing clustering of variables by absolute correlations of short-term variation.

Acknowledgements

The organisations and individuals whose contributions have made this analysis report possible include:

References

Abmann, C., J. Boysen-Hogrefe, and M. Pape. 2014. “Bayesian Analysis of Dynamic Factor Models: An Ex-Post Approach Towards the Rotation Problem.” Kiel Working Paper No. 1902. Kiel, Germany: Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

Bradford, Michael J, Josh Korman, and Paul S Higgins. 2005. “Using Confidence Intervals to Estimate the Response of Salmon Populations (Oncorhynchus Spp.) to Experimental Habitat Alterations.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62 (12): 2716–26. https://doi.org/10.1139/f05-179.

Fabens, A J. 1965. “Properties and Fitting of the von Bertalanffy Growth Curve.” Growth 29 (3): 265–89.

He, Ji X., James R. Bence, James E. Johnson, David F. Clapp, and Mark P. Ebener. 2008. “Modeling Variation in Mass-Length Relations and Condition Indices of Lake Trout and Chinook Salmon in Lake Huron: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137 (3): 801–17. https://doi.org/10.1577/T07-012.1.

Irvine, R.L., J.T.A. Baxter, and J.L. Thorley. 2015. “Lower Columbia River Rainbow Trout Spawning Assessment: Year 7 (2014 Study Period).” A Mountain Water Research and Poisson Consulting Ltd. Report. Castlegar, B.C.: BC Hydro. http://www.bchydro.com/content/dam/BCHydro/customer-portal/documents/corporate/environment-sustainability/water-use-planning/southern-interior/clbmon-46-yr7-2015-02-04.pdf.

Kery, Marc. 2010. Introduction to WinBUGS for Ecologists: A Bayesian Approach to Regression, ANOVA, Mixed Models and Related Analyses. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=629953.

Kery, Marc, and Michael Schaub. 2011. Bayesian Population Analysis Using WinBUGS : A Hierarchical Perspective. Boston: Academic Press. http://www.vogelwarte.ch/bpa.html.

Macdonald, P. D. M., and T. J. Pitcher. 1979. “Age-Groups from Size-Frequency Data: A Versatile and Efficient Method of Analyzing Distribution Mixtures.” Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36 (8): 987–1001. https://doi.org/10.1139/f79-137.

Plummer, Martyn. 2012. “JAGS Version 3.3.0 User Manual.” http://sourceforge.net/projects/mcmc-jags/files/Manuals/3.x/.

R Core Team. 2014. “R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.” Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.

Team, R Core. 2013. “R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.” Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org.

Thorley, J. L. 2013. “Jaggernaut: An R Package to Facilitate Bayesian Analyses Using JAGS (Just Another Gibbs Sampler).” Nelson, B.C.: Poisson Consulting Ltd. https://github.com/poissonconsulting/jaggernaut.

von Bertalanffy, L. 1938. “A Quantitative Theory of Organic Growth (Inquiries on Growth Laws Ii).” Human Biology 10: 181–213.

Zuur, A F, I D Tuck, and N Bailey. 2003. “Dynamic Factor Analysis to Estimate Common Trends in Fisheries Time Series.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60 (5): 542–52. https://doi.org/10.1139/f03-030.