Middle Columbia River Fish Indexing Analysis 2015

Suggested Citation: Thorley, J.L. and Beliveau, A. (2016) Middle Columbia River Fish Indexing Analysis 2015. A Poisson Consulting Analysis Report. URL: http://www.poissonconsulting.ca/f/1492264933.

Background

The key management questions to be addressed by the analyses are:

  1. Is there a change in abundance of adult life stages of fish using the Middle Columbia River (MCR) that corresponds with the implementation of a year-round minimum flow?
  2. Is there a change in growth rate of adult life stages of the most common fish species using the MCR that corresponds with the implementation of a year-round minimum flow?
  3. Is there a change in body condition (measured as a function of relative weight to length) of adult life stages of fish using the MCR that corresponds with the implementation of a year-round minimum flow?
  4. Is there a change in spatial distribution of adult life stages of fish using the MCR that corresponds with the implementation of a year-round minimum flow?

Other objectives include the estimation of species richness, species diversity (evenness) and the modeling of environmental-fish metric relationships and scale age data. The year-round minimum flow was implemented in the winter of 2010 at the same time that a fifth turbine was added.

Methods

Data Preparation

The data were provided by Golder Associates.

Life-Stage

The four primary fish species were categorized as fry, juvenile or adult based on their lengths.

Species Fry Juvenile
Bull Trout <120 <400
Mountain Whitefish <120 <175
Rainbow Trout <120 <250
Largescale Sucker <120 <350

Statistical Analysis

Hierarchical Bayesian models were fitted to the count data using R version 3.3.0 (Team 2013) and JAGS 4.1.0 (Plummer 2015) which interfaced with each other via jaggernaut 2.3.3 (Thorley 2013). For additional information on hierarchical Bayesian modelling in the BUGS language, of which JAGS uses a dialect, the reader is referred to Kery and Schaub (2011, 41–44).

Unless specified, the models assumed vague (low information) prior distributions (Kery and Schaub 2011, 36). The posterior distributions were estimated from a minimum of 1,000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samples thinned from the second halves of three chains of at least 10,000 iterations in length (Kery and Schaub 2011, 38–40). Model convergence was confirmed by ensuring that Rhat (Kery and Schaub 2011, 40) was less than 1.1 for each of the parameters in the model (Kery and Schaub 2011, 61). Model adequacy was confirmed by examination of residual plots.

The posterior distributions of the fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011, 75) parameters are summarised in terms of a point estimate (mean), lower and upper 95% credible limits (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles), the standard deviation (SD), percent relative error (half the 95% credible interval as a percent of the point estimate) and significance (Kery and Schaub 2011, 37, 42).

Variable selection was achieved by dropping insignificant (Kery and Schaub 2011, 37, 42) fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011, 77–82) variables and uninformative random variables. A fixed variables was considered to be insignificant if its significance was \(\geq\) 0.05 while a random variable was considered to be uninformative if its percent relative error was \(\geq\) 80%.

The results are displayed graphically by plotting the modeled relationships between particular variables and the response with 95% credible intervals (CRIs) with the remaining variables held constant. In general, continuous and discrete fixed variables are held constant at their mean and first level values respectively while random variables are held constant at their typical values (expected values of the underlying hyperdistributions) (Kery and Schaub 2011, 77–82). Where informative the influence of particular variables is expressed in terms of the effect size (i.e., percent change in the response variable) with 95% CRIs (Bradford, Korman, and Higgins 2005).

Growth

Annual growth was estimated from the inter-annual recaptures using the Fabens method (Fabens 1965) for estimating the von Bertalanffy (VB) growth curve (von Bertalanffy 1938). The VB curves is based on the premise that

\[ \frac{dl}{dt} = k (L_{\infty} - l)\]

where \(l\) is the length of the individual, \(k\) is the growth coefficient and \(L_{\infty}\) is the mean maximum length.

Integrating the above equation gives

\[ l_t = L_{\infty} (1 - e^{-k(t - t0)})\]

where \(l_t\) is the length at time \(t\) and \(t0\) is the time at which the individual would have had no length.

The Fabens form allows

\[ l_r = l_c + (L_{\infty} - l_c) (1 - e^{-kT})\]

where \(l_r\) is the length at recapture, \(l_c\) is the length at capture and \(T\) is the time at large.

Key assumptions of the growth model include:

Condition

Condition was estimated via an analysis of mass-length relations (He et al. 2008).

More specifically the model was based on the allometric relationship

\[ W = \alpha L^{\beta}\]

where \(W\) is the weight (mass), \(\alpha\) is the coefficent, \(\beta\) is the exponent and \(L\) is the length.

To improve chain mixing the relation was log-transformed, i.e.,

\[ \log(W) = \log(\alpha) + \beta \log(L)\]

and the logged lengths centered, i.e., \(\log(L) - \overline{\log(L)}\), prior to model fitting.

Preliminary analyses indicated that the variation in the exponent \(\beta\) with respect to year was not informative.

Key assumptions of the final condition model include:

Occupancy

Occupancy, which is the probability that a particular species was present at a site, was estimated from the temporal replication of detection data (Kery, 2010; Kery and Schaub, 2011, pp. 238-242 and 414-418), i.e., each site was surveyed multiple times within a season. A species was considered to have been detected if one or more individuals of the species were caught or counted. It is important to note that the model estimates the probability that the species was present at a given (or typical) site in a given (or typical) year as opposed to the probability that the species was present in the entire study area. We focused on Northern Pikeminnow, Burbot, Lake Whitefish, Rainbow Trout, Redside Shiner and Sculpins because they were low enough density to not to be present at all sites at all times yet were encounted sufficiently often to provide information on spatial and temporal changes.

Key assumptions of the occupancy model include:

Species Richness

The estimated probabilities of presence for the six species considered in the occupany analyses were summed to give the expected species richnesses at a given (or typical) site in a given (or typical) year.

Count

The count data were analysed using an overdispersed Poisson model (Kery, 2010; Kery and Schaub, 2011, pp. 168-170,180 and 55-56) to provide estimates of the lineal river count density (count/km) by year and site. Unlike Kery (2010) and Kery and Schaub (2011), which used a log-normal distribution to account for the extra-Poisson variation, the current model used a gamma distribution with identical shape and scale parameters because it has a mean of 1 and therefore no overall effect on the expected count. The count data does not enable us to estimate abundance nor observer efficiency, but it enables us to estimate an expected count, which is the product of the two. As such it is necessary to assume that changes in observer efficiency are negligible in order to interpret the estimates as relative density.

Key assumptions of the abundance model include:

Movement

The extent to which sites are closed, i.e., fish remain at the same site between sessions, was evaluated from a logistic ANCOVA (Kery 2010). The model estimated the probability that intra-annual recaptures were caught at the same site versus a different one.

Key assumptions of the site fidelity model include:

Observer Length Correction

The bias (accuracy) and error (precisions) in observer’s fish length estimates were quantified using a model with a categorical distribution that compared the proportions of fish in different length-classes for each observer to the equivalent proportions for the measured fish.

Key assumptions of the observer length correction model include:

The observed fish lengths were corrected for the estimated length biases.

Abundance

The catch data were analysed using a capture-recapture-based overdispersed Poisson model to provide estimates of capture efficiency and absolute abundance. To maximize the number of recaptures the model grouped all the sites into a supersite for the purposes of estimating the number of marked fish but analysed the total captures at the site level.

Key assumptions of the abundance model include:

Note that the analysis did not converge for Largescale Suckers. Excluding the 2001 data from the analysis (there was no data for this species from 2002 to 2009) did not improve convergence.

Species Evenness

The site and year estimates of the lineal bank count densities from the count model for Rainbow Trout, Suckers, Burbot and Northern Pikeminnow were combined with the equivalent count estimates for Bull Trout and Adult Mountain Whitefish from the abundance model to calculate the shannon index of evenness \((E)\). The index was calculated using the following formula where \(S\) is the number of species and \(p_i\) is the proportion of the total count belonging to the ith species.

\[ E = \frac{-\sum p_i \log(p_i)}{\log(S)}\]

The long-term congruence between the yearly fall fish metrics (Grw = Estimated growth \(k\), Con = Estimated condition effect, Blank = Estimated population growth rate, Rkm = Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log density) by life stage (Juv = Juvenile, AD = Adult) and a range of environmental variables including the tri-monthly (JaMa = January - March, ApJn = April - June, JlSe = July - September, OcDe = October - December) discharge from Revelstoke Dam (Q10, QMu = Mean, Q90, QDlt = Mean absolute difference) and the elevation (Ele), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the chlorophyll-a (ChlA) and invertebrate production (Inv) and the kokanee abundance (KO) was examined using Dynamic Factor Analysis (Zuur, Tuck, and Bailey 2003). Due to the rotation problem the underlying trends were indeterminate (Abmann, Boysen-Hogrefe, and Pape 2014). The October to December discharge and elevation values were lead (opposite of lagged) by one year to account for the fact that they occurred after sampling.

Key assumptions of the Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) model include:

The similarities were represented visually by using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to map the distances onto two-dimensional space. The more similar two time series are the closer they will tend to be in the resultant NMDS plot.

Short-Term Correlations

To assess the short-term congruence between the yearly fish metrics and the environmental variables, the pair-wise distances between the residuals from the DFA model were calculated as \(1 - abs(cor(x, y))\) where \(cor\) is the Pearson correlation, \(abs\) the absolute value and \(x\) and \(y\) are the two time series being compared.

The short-term similarities were represented visually by using NMDS to map the distances onto two-dimensional space.

Scale Age

The age of Mountain Whitefish was estimated from scales by two independent agers. The scale aging process was repeated twice per ager, leading to two observations per ager per fish encounter (Hurlbert 1984). The actual age was determined from the length of each fish at first capture based on the stage cutoffs by season. The scale ages were analysed using a linear mixed model.

Key assumptions of the scale age model include:

Model Code

The JAGS model code, which uses a series of naming conventions, is presented below.

Growth

Variable/Parameter Description
bK[i] Expected growth coefficient in the ith year
bKIntercept Intercept for log(bK)
bKRegime[i] Effect of ith regime on log(bK)
bKYear[i] Random effect of ith Year on log(bK)
bLinf Mean maximum length
eGrowth[i] Expected Growth of the ith recapture
Growth[i] Change in length of the ith fish between release and recapture
LengthAtRelease[i] Length of the ith recapture when released
nRegime[i] Number of regimes
sGrowth SD of residual variation in Growth
sKYear[i] SD of effect of Year on log(bK)
Threshold Last year of the first regime
Year[i] Year the ith recapture was released
Years[i] Number of years between release and recapture for the ith recapture
Growth - Model1
model {

  bKIntercept ~ dnorm (0, 5^-2)

  bKRegime[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nRegime) {
    bKRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  sKYear ~ dunif (0, 5)
  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bKYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sKYear^-2)
    log(bK[i]) <- bKIntercept + bKRegime[step(i - Threshold) + 1] + bKYear[i]
  }

  bLinf ~ dunif(100, 1000)
  sGrowth ~ dunif(0, 100)

  for (i in 1:length(Year)) {

    eGrowth[i] <- (bLinf - LengthAtRelease[i]) * (1 - exp(-sum(bK[Year[i]:(Year[i] + Years[i] - 1)])))

    Growth[i] ~ dnorm(eGrowth[i], sGrowth^-2)
  }
  tGrowth <- bKRegime[2]
} 

Condition

Variable/Parameter Description
bWeightIntercept Intercept for eWeightIntercept
bWeightRegimeIntercept[i] Effect of ith regime on bWeightIntercept
bWeightRegimeSlope[i] Effect of ith regime on bWeightSlope
bWeightSeasonIntercept[i] Effect of ith season on bWeightIntercept
bWeightSeasonSlope[i] Effect of ith season on bWeightSlope
bWeightSiteIntercept[i] Random effect of ith site on bWeightIntercept
bWeightSiteYearIntercept[i,j] Random effect of ith site in jth year on bWeightIntercept
bWeightSlope Intercept for eWeightSlope
bWeightYearIntercept[i] Random effect of ith year on bWeightIntercept
bWeightYearSlope[i] Random effect of ith year on bWeightSlope
eWeight[i] Expected weight of the ith fish
eWeightIntercept[i] Intercept for log(eWeight[i])
eWeightSlope[i] Slope for log(eWeight[i])
Length[i] Length of ith fish
sWeight Residual SD of Weight
sWeightSiteIntercept SD for the effect of site on bWeightIntercept
sWeightSiteYearIntercept SD for the effect of the combination of site and year on eWeightIntercept
sWeightYearIntercept SD of the effect of year on bWeightIntercept
sWeightYearSlope SD for the random effect of year on eWeightSlope
Weight[i] Weight of ith fish
Condition - Model1
model {

  bWeightIntercept ~ dnorm(5, 5^-2)
  bWeightSlope ~ dnorm(3, 5^-2)

  bWeightRegimeIntercept[1] <- 0
  bWeightRegimeSlope[1] <- 0

  for(i in 2:nRegime) {
    bWeightRegimeIntercept[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bWeightRegimeSlope[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bWeightSeasonIntercept[1] <- 0
  bWeightSeasonSlope[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nSeason) {
    bWeightSeasonIntercept[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bWeightSeasonSlope[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  sWeightYearIntercept ~ dunif(0, 5)
  sWeightYearSlope ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(yr in 1:nYear) {
    bWeightYearIntercept[yr] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightYearIntercept^-2)
    bWeightYearSlope[yr] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightYearSlope^-2)
  }

  sWeightSiteIntercept ~ dunif(0, 5)
  sWeightSiteYearIntercept ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(st in 1:nSite) {
    bWeightSiteIntercept[st] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightSiteIntercept^-2)
    for(yr in 1:nYear) {
      bWeightSiteYearIntercept[st, yr] ~ dnorm(0, sWeightSiteYearIntercept^-2)
    }
  }

  sWeight ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(i in 1:length(Year)) {

    eWeightIntercept[i] <- bWeightIntercept
        + bWeightRegimeIntercept[Regime[i]]
        + bWeightSeasonIntercept[Season[i]]
        + bWeightYearIntercept[Year[i]]
        + bWeightSiteIntercept[Site[i]]
        + bWeightSiteYearIntercept[Site[i],Year[i]]

    eWeightSlope[i] <- bWeightSlope
        + bWeightRegimeSlope[Regime[i]]
        + bWeightSeasonSlope[Season[i]]
        + bWeightYearSlope[Year[i]]

    log(eWeight[i]) <- eWeightIntercept[i] + eWeightSlope[i] * Length[i]
    Weight[i] ~ dlnorm(log(eWeight[i]) , sWeight^-2)
  }
  tCondition1 <- bWeightRegimeIntercept[2]
  tCondition2 <- bWeightRegimeSlope[2]
}

Occupancy

Variable/Parameter Description
bOccupancy Intercept of logit(eOccupancy)
bOccupancyRegime[i] Effect of ith regime on logit(eOccupancy)
bOccupancySeason[i] Effect of ith season on logit(eOccupancy)
bOccupancySite[i] Effect of ith site on logit(eOccupancy)
bOccupancyYear[i] Effect of ith year on logit(eOccupancy)
eObserved[i] Probability of observing species on ith site visit
eOccupancy[i] Predicted occupancy (species presence versus absence) on ith site visit
nRegime Number of regimes in the dataset (2)
nSeason Number of seasons in the dataset (2)
nSite Number of sites in the dataset
nYear Number of years of data
Observed[i] Whether the species was observed on ith site visit (0 or 1)
Regime[i] Regime ofith site visit
Season[i] Season of ith site visit
Site[i] Site of ith site visit
sOccupancySite SD parameter for the distribution of bOccupancySite[i]
sOccupancyYear SD parameter for the distribution of bOccupancyYear[i]
Year[i] Year of ith site visit
Occupancy - Model1
model {

  bOccupancy ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  bOccupancySeason[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nSeason) {
    bOccupancySeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bOccupancyRegime[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nRegime) {
    bOccupancyRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  sOccupancyYear ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (yr in 1:nYear) {
    bOccupancyYear[yr] ~ dnorm(0, sOccupancyYear^-2)
  }

  sOccupancySite ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (st in 1:nSite) {
    bOccupancySite[st] ~ dnorm(0, sOccupancySite^-2)
  }
  for (i in 1:length(Year)) {
    logit(eOccupancy[i]) <- bOccupancy
    + bOccupancyRegime[Regime[i]] + bOccupancySeason[Season[i]]
    + bOccupancySite[Site[i]] + bOccupancyYear[Year[i]]
    eObserved[i] <- eOccupancy[i]
    Observed[i] ~ dbern(eObserved[i])
  }
}

Count

Variable/Parameter Description
bDensitySeason[i] Effect of ith season on log(eDensity)
bDensitySite[i] Effect of ith site on log(eDensity)
bDensitySiteYear[i, j] Effect of ith site in jth year on log(eDensity)
bDensityYear[i] Random effect of ith year on log(eDensity)
bDistribution Intercept of eDistribution
bDistributionRegime[i] Effect of ith regime on eDistribution
bDistributionSeason[i] Effect of ith season on eDistribution
bDistributionYear[i] Effect of ith year on eDistribution
bRate Baseline rate of change (relative to the previous year) in eDensity due to year effect
bRateRegime[i] Deviate from bRate due to regime effect in the ith year
bRateYear[i] Random deviate from bRate due to year effect in the ith year
Count[i] Count on ith site visit
eCount[i] Expected count on ith site visit
eDensity[i] Lineal density on ith site visit
eDispersion[i] Overdispersion factor on ith site visit
eDistribution[i] Effect of centred river kilometre on ith site visit on log(eDensity)
eRateYear[i] Rate of change in year effect between the (i-1)th and ith year
ProportionSampled[i] Proportion of ith site that was sampled
sDispersion[i] SD of the overdispersion factor distribution
SiteLength[i] Length of ith site
sRateYear SD of the distribution of bRateYear
Count - Model1
model {
  bDistribution ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)

  bRateRegime[1] <- 0
  bDistributionRegime[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nRegime) {
    bRateRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bDistributionRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bDensitySeason[1] <- 0
  bDistributionSeason[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nSeason) {
    bDensitySeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bDistributionSeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bRate ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  sRateYear ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(i in 1:nYear) {
    bRateYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sRateYear^-2)
  }

  bDensityYear[1] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  for (i in 2:nYear) {
    eRateYear[i-1] <- bRate + bRateYear[i-1] + bRateRegime[YearRegime[i-1]]
    bDensityYear[i] <- bDensityYear[i-1] + eRateYear[i-1]
  }

  sDistributionYear ~ dunif(0, 2)

  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bDistributionYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDistributionYear^-2)
  }

  sDensitySite ~ dunif(0, 5)
  sDensitySiteYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nSite) {
    bDensitySite[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySite^-2)
    for (j in 1:nYear) {
      bDensitySiteYear[i, j] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySiteYear^-2)
    }
  }

  sDispersion ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (i in 1:length(Year)) {
    eDistribution[i] <- bDistribution
      + bDistributionRegime[Regime[i]]
      + bDistributionSeason[Season[i]]
      + bDistributionYear[Year[i]]

    log(eDensity[i]) <- bDensityYear[Year[i]]
      + eDistribution[i] * RiverKm[i]
      + bDensitySeason[Season[i]]
      + bDensitySite[Site[i]]
      + bDensitySiteYear[Site[i],Year[i]]

    eCount[i] <- eDensity[i] * SiteLength[i] * ProportionSampled[i]
    eDispersion[i] ~ dgamma(1 / sDispersion^2, 1 / sDispersion^2)
    Count[i] ~ dpois(eCount[i] * eDispersion[i])
  }
  tAbundance <- bRateRegime[2]
  tDistribution <- bDistributionRegime[2]
}

Movement

Variable/Parameter Description
bLength Coefficient for the effect of Length on logit(eMoved)
bLengthSeason[i] Coefficient for the effect of the interaction between Length and Season on logit(eMoved)
bMoved Intercept for logit(eMoved)
bMovedSeason[i] Effect of ith season on logit(eMoved)
eMoved[i] Probability of different site from previous encounter for ith recapture
Length[i] Length of ith recaptured fish
Moved[i] Indicates whether ith recapture is recorded at a different site from previous encounter
nSeason Number of seasons in the study (2)
Season[i] Season of ith recapture
Movement - Model1
model {
  bMoved ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  bLength ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  bMovedSeason[1] <- 0
  bLengthSeason[1] <- 0

  for(i in 2:nSeason) {
    bMovedSeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-5)
    bLengthSeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-5)
  }

  for (i in 1:length(Season)) {
    logit(eMoved[i]) <- bMoved + bMovedSeason[Season[i]] + (bLength + bLengthSeason[Season[i]]) * Length[i]
    Moved[i] ~ dbern(eMoved[i])
  }
}

Observer Length Correction

Variable/Parameter Description
bLength[i] Relative inaccuracy of theith Observer
ClassLength Mean Length of fish belonging to the ith class
dClass[i] Prior value for the relative proportion of fish in the ith class
eClass[i] Expected class of the ith fish
eLength[i] Expected Length of the ith fish
eSLength[i] Expected SD of the residual variation in Length for the ith
Length[i] Observed fork length of the ith fish
Observer[i] Observer of the ith fish where the first observer used a length board
pClass[i] Proportion of fish in the ith class
sLength[i] Relative imprecision of the ith Observer
Observer Length Correction - Model1
model {
  for(i in 1:nClass) {
    dClass[i] <- 1
  }
  pClass[1:nClass] ~ ddirch(dClass[])

  bLength[1] <- 1
  sLength[1] <- 1

  for(i in 2:nObserver) {
    bLength[i] ~ dunif(0.5, 2)
    sLength[i] ~ dunif(1, 50)
  }
  for(i in 1:length(Length))  {
    eClass[i] ~ dcat(pClass[])
    eLength[i] <- bLength[Observer[i]] * ClassLength[eClass[i]]
    eSLength[i] <- sLength[Observer[i]] * ClassSD
    Length[i] ~ dnorm(eLength[i], eSLength[i]^-2)
  }
}

Abundance

Variable/Parameter Description
bDensitySeason[i] Effect of ith Season on bDensity
bDensitySite[i] Random effect of ith Site on bDensity
bDensitySiteYear[i, j] Effect of ith Site in jth year on bDensity
bDensityYear[i] Random effect of ith Year on bDensity
bDistribution Intercept for eDistribution
bDistributionRegime[i] Effect of ith Regime on bDistribution
bDistributionSeason[i] Effect of ith Season on bDistribution
bDistributionYear[i] Random effect of ith Year on bDistribution
bEfficiency Intercept for logit(eEfficiency)
bEfficiencySessionSeasonYear[i, j, k] Effect of ith Session in jth Season of kth Year on bEfficiency
bRate Baseline rate of change (relative to the previous year) in eDensity due to year effect
bRateRegime[i] Deviate from bRate due to regime effect in the ith year
bRateYear[i] Random deviate from bRate due to year effect in the ith year
Catch[i] Number of fish caught on ith site visit
eAbundance[i] Predicted abundance on ith site visit
eDensity[i] Predicted lineal density on ith site visit
eDistribution[i] Predicted relationship between centred river kilometre and ith site visit on bDensity
eEfficiency[i] Predicted efficiency during ith site visit
eRateYear[i] Rate of change in year effect between the (i-1)th and ith year
Marked[i] Number of marked fish caught in ith river visit
sRateYear SD of the distribution of bRateYear
Tagged[i] Number of fish tagged prior to ith river visit
Abundance - Model1
model {

  bEfficiency ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  bDistribution ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)

  bRateRegime[1] <- 0
  bDistributionRegime[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nRegime) {
    bRateRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bDistributionRegime[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bEfficiencySeason[1] <- 0
  bDensitySeason[1] <- 0
  bDistributionSeason[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nSeason) {
    bEfficiencySeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bDensitySeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
    bDistributionSeason[i] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  }

  bRate ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  sRateYear ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for(i in 1:nYear) {
    bRateYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sRateYear^-2)
  }

  bDensityYear[1] ~ dnorm(0, 5^-2)
  for (i in 2:nYear) {
    eRateYear[i-1] <- bRate + bRateYear[i-1] + bRateRegime[YearRegime[i-1]]
    bDensityYear[i] <- bDensityYear[i-1] + eRateYear[i-1]
  }

  sDistributionYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nYear) {
    bDistributionYear[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDistributionYear^-2)
  }

  sDensitySite ~ dunif(0, 5)
  sDensitySiteYear ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for (i in 1:nSite) {
    bDensitySite[i] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySite^-2)
    for (j in 1:nYear) {
      bDensitySiteYear[i, j] ~ dnorm(0, sDensitySiteYear^-2)
    }
  }

  sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (i in 1:nSession) {
    for (j in 1:nSeason) {
      for (k in 1:nYear) {
        bEfficiencySessionSeasonYear[i, j, k] ~ dnorm(0, sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear^-2)
      }
    }
  }

  bType[1] <- 1
  for (i in 2:nType) {
    bType[i] ~ dunif(0, 10)
  }

  for(i in 1:length(EffIndex)) {

    logit(eEff[i]) <- bEfficiency
        + bEfficiencySeason[Season[EffIndex[i]]]
        + bEfficiencySessionSeasonYear[Session[EffIndex[i]],
                                       Season[EffIndex[i]],
                                       Year[EffIndex[i]]]

    Marked[EffIndex[i]] ~ dbin(eEff[i], Tagged[EffIndex[i]])
  }

  sDispersion ~ dunif(0, 5)
  for (i in 1:length(Year)) {

    logit(eEfficiency[i]) <- bEfficiency
        + bEfficiencySeason[Season[i]]
        + bEfficiencySessionSeasonYear[Session[i], Season[i], Year[i]]

    eDistribution[i] <- bDistribution
      + bDistributionRegime[Regime[i]]
      + bDistributionSeason[Season[i]]
      + bDistributionYear[Year[i]]

    log(eDensity[i]) <- bDensityYear[Year[i]]
      + eDistribution[i] * RiverKm[i]
      + bDensitySeason[Season[i]]
      + bDensitySite[Site[i]]
      + bDensityYear[Year[i]]
      + bDensitySiteYear[Site[i], Year[i]]

    eCatch[i] <- eDensity[i] * SiteLength[i] * ProportionSampled[i] * eEfficiency[i] * bType[Type[i]]

    eDispersion[i] ~ dgamma(1 / sDispersion^2, 1 / sDispersion^2)

    Catch[i] ~ dpois(eCatch[i] * eDispersion[i])
  }
  tAbundance <- bRateRegime[2]
  tDistribution <- bDistributionRegime[2]
}
Variable/Parameter Description
bDistance[i,j] Euclidean distance between ith and jth Variable
bTrendYear[t,y] Expected value for tth trend in yth Year
eValue[v,y,t] Expected standardised value for vth Variable in yth Year considering tth trends
sTrend SD in trend random walks
sValue SD for residual variation in Value
Value[i] Standardised value for ith data point
Variable[i] Variable for ith data point
Year[i] Year of ith data point
Z[v,y] Expected weighting for vth Variable in yth Year
model{

  sTrend ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for (t in 1:nTrend) {
    bTrendYear[t,1] ~ dunif(-1,1)
    for(y in 2:nYear){
      bTrendYear[t,y] ~ dnorm(bTrendYear[t,y-1], sTrend^-2)
    }
  }

  for(v in 1:nVariable){
    for(t in 1:nTrend) {
      Z[v,t] ~ dunif(-1,1)
    }
    for(y in 1:nYear){
      eValue[v,y,1] <- Z[v,1] * bTrendYear[1,y]
      for(t in 2:nTrend) {
        eValue[v,y,t] <- eValue[v,y,t-1] + Z[v,t] * bTrendYear[t,y]
      }
    }
  }

  sValue ~ dunif(0, 1)
  for(i in 1:length(Value)) {
    Value[i] ~ dnorm(eValue[Variable[i], Year[i], nTrend], sValue^-2)
  }

  for(i in 1:nVariable) {
    for(j in 1:nVariable) {
      bDistance[i,j] <- sqrt(sum((Z[i,]-Z[j,])^2))
    }
  }
}

Scale Age

Variable/Parameter Description
Ager[i] ith ager
bIntercept Intercept of eScaleAge
bInterceptAger[i] Effect of Ager[i] on the intercept of eScaleAge
bInterceptEncounterID[i] Random effect of EncounterID[i] on the intercept of eScaleAge
bInterceptEncounterIDAger[i,j] Random effect of the interaction of EncounterID[i] and Ager[j] on the intercept of eScaleAge
BirthYear[i] BirthYear of the ith fish
bSlope Intercept on the slope of the effect of eAge on eScaleAge
bSlopeAger[i] Effect of Ager[i] on the slope of the effect of eAge on eScaleAge
dYear[i] ith parameter of the Dirichlet distribution on pYear
eAge[i] Expected true age of the fish on the ith scale age observation
EncounterID[i] ID of the ith encounter
eScaleAge[i] Expected scale age on the ith scale age observation
FishID[i] Fish ID of the ith scale age
pYear[i] Probability that a fish is born in the ith year, starting with 1993
ScaleAge[i] ith scale age observation
sInterceptEncounterID SD of bInterceptEncounterID
sInterceptEncounterIDAger SD of bInterceptEncounterIDAger
sSD[i] SD of the ith ager due to pseudo-replication
Year[i] Encounter year of the ith scale age observation
Scale Age - Model1
model {

  for(i in 1:nBirthYear) {
    dYear[i] <- 1
  }

  pYear ~ ddirch(dYear[])

  for(i in 1:nFishID){
    BirthYear[i] ~ dcat(pYear)
  }
  mBirthYear <- BirthYear

  bIntercept ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
  bSlope ~ dnorm(1, 2^-2)

  for(i in 1:nAger) {
    sSD[i] ~ dunif(0, 5)
  }

  bInterceptAger[1] <- 0
  bSlopeAger[1] <- 0
  for(i in 2:nAger) {
    bInterceptAger[i] ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
    bSlopeAger[i] ~ dnorm(0, 2^-2)
  }

  sInterceptEncounterID ~ dunif(0, 2)
  sInterceptEncounterIDAger ~ dunif(0, 2)
  for(i in 1:nEncounterID) {
    bInterceptEncounterID[i] ~ dnorm(0, sInterceptEncounterID^-2)
    for(j in 1:nAger) {
      bInterceptEncounterIDAger[i,j] ~ dnorm(0, sInterceptEncounterIDAger^-2)
    }
  }

  for(i in 1:length(ScaleAge)){
    eAge[i] <- Year[i] - BirthYear[FishID[i]]
    eScaleAge[i] <- bIntercept + bInterceptAger[Ager[i]] + (bSlope + bSlopeAger[Ager[i]]) * eAge[i] + bInterceptEncounterID[EncounterID[i]] + bInterceptEncounterIDAger[EncounterID[i], Ager[i]]
    ScaleAge[i] ~ dnorm(eScaleAge[i], sSD[Ager[i]]^-2) T(0,)
  }
}

Results

Model Parameters

The posterior distributions for the fixed (Kery and Schaub 2011 p. 75) parameters in each model are summarised below.

Growth - Bull Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bKIntercept -1.7953 -2.0693 -1.4706 0.1498 17 0.0010
bKRegime[2] -0.0322 -0.4536 0.3114 0.1864 1200 0.8823
bLinf 845.9000 795.4000 906.2000 28.0000 7 0.0010
sGrowth 31.5580 28.7940 34.6740 1.5170 9 0.0010
sKYear 0.2909 0.1444 0.5245 0.0990 65 0.0010
tGrowth -0.0322 -0.4536 0.3114 0.1864 1200 0.8823
Convergence Iterations
1.01 10000

Growth - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bKIntercept -2.7289 -3.0555 -2.4222 0.1593 12 0.0010
bKRegime[2] 0.1727 -0.2611 0.6196 0.2248 260 0.4152
bLinf 360.9900 344.6300 379.3400 8.9600 5 0.0010
sGrowth 10.9370 10.4620 11.4710 0.2590 5 0.0010
sKYear 0.3762 0.2046 0.6533 0.1174 60 0.0010
tGrowth 0.1727 -0.2611 0.6196 0.2248 260 0.4152
Convergence Iterations
1.05 10000

Growth - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bKIntercept -1.733 -3.287 -0.468 0.700 81 0.0155
bKRegime[2] -0.282 -1.671 1.251 0.698 520 0.4851
bLinf 587.900 439.400 918.000 124.400 41 0.0010
sGrowth 26.500 17.040 43.690 6.930 50 0.0010
sKYear 0.525 0.018 1.980 0.546 190 0.0010
tGrowth -0.282 -1.671 1.251 0.698 520 0.4851
Convergence Iterations
1.04 20000

Condition - Bull Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeightIntercept 6.837430 6.801240 6.874430 0.018880 1 0.0010
bWeightRegimeIntercept[2] -0.101100 -0.170100 -0.037300 0.032800 66 0.0060
bWeightRegimeSlope[2] 0.036900 -0.089000 0.172800 0.065000 360 0.5015
bWeightSeasonIntercept[2] 0.000790 -0.018610 0.018940 0.009420 2400 0.9354
bWeightSeasonSlope[2] 0.013460 -0.035760 0.060910 0.024330 360 0.5294
bWeightSlope 3.162200 3.082400 3.236900 0.039300 2 0.0010
sWeight 0.138387 0.134908 0.142259 0.001916 3 0.0010
sWeightSiteIntercept 0.012160 0.001970 0.025340 0.005750 96 0.0010
sWeightSiteYearIntercept 0.018060 0.006630 0.027260 0.005230 57 0.0010
sWeightYearIntercept 0.053750 0.033750 0.087910 0.013480 50 0.0010
sWeightYearSlope 0.107600 0.063400 0.181900 0.030700 55 0.0010
tCondition1 -0.101100 -0.170100 -0.037300 0.032800 66 0.0060
tCondition2 0.036900 -0.089000 0.172800 0.065000 360 0.5015
Convergence Iterations
1.02 2e+05

Condition - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeightIntercept 4.786910 4.768410 4.804940 0.008900 0 0.0010
bWeightRegimeIntercept[2] -0.043120 -0.071130 -0.015720 0.014670 64 0.0040
bWeightRegimeSlope[2] -0.024300 -0.084600 0.036500 0.031000 250 0.4152
bWeightSeasonIntercept[2] -0.044090 -0.051720 -0.036180 0.003900 18 0.0010
bWeightSeasonSlope[2] -0.102480 -0.134870 -0.068010 0.017360 33 0.0010
bWeightSlope 3.209610 3.171200 3.243630 0.018540 1 0.0010
sWeight 0.099091 0.097426 0.100709 0.000824 2 0.0010
sWeightSiteIntercept 0.007000 0.001500 0.013070 0.003050 83 0.0010
sWeightSiteYearIntercept 0.013931 0.010117 0.018004 0.001942 28 0.0010
sWeightYearIntercept 0.024910 0.015480 0.040400 0.006430 50 0.0010
sWeightYearSlope 0.046360 0.025280 0.081230 0.014410 60 0.0010
tCondition1 -0.043120 -0.071130 -0.015720 0.014670 64 0.0040
tCondition2 -0.024300 -0.084600 0.036500 0.031000 250 0.4152
Convergence Iterations
1.01 1e+05

Condition - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeightIntercept 4.57739 4.54525 4.60890 0.01567 1 0.0010
bWeightRegimeIntercept[2] -0.00140 -0.04721 0.04137 0.02276 3200 0.9761
bWeightRegimeSlope[2] -0.03850 -0.17230 0.07870 0.06480 330 0.5430
bWeightSeasonIntercept[2] -0.07612 -0.10812 -0.04496 0.01571 41 0.0010
bWeightSeasonSlope[2] 0.00600 -0.07290 0.09230 0.04230 1400 0.9082
bWeightSlope 3.09470 3.01990 3.17530 0.03920 3 0.0010
sWeight 0.11211 0.10536 0.11998 0.00381 7 0.0010
sWeightSiteIntercept 0.02045 0.00158 0.04556 0.01160 110 0.0010
sWeightSiteYearIntercept 0.01720 0.00161 0.04015 0.01067 110 0.0010
sWeightYearIntercept 0.02082 0.00119 0.05355 0.01412 130 0.0010
sWeightYearSlope 0.08440 0.04140 0.15060 0.02910 65 0.0010
tCondition1 -0.00140 -0.04721 0.04137 0.02276 3200 0.9761
tCondition2 -0.03850 -0.17230 0.07870 0.06480 330 0.5430
Convergence Iterations
1.03 1e+05

Condition - Largescale Sucker

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bWeightIntercept 6.912700 6.776400 7.111200 0.081000 2 0.0010
bWeightRegimeIntercept[2] -0.114800 -0.335800 0.030600 0.089500 160 0.1171
bWeightRegimeSlope[2] -0.379000 -1.066000 0.339000 0.339000 180 0.2044
bWeightSeasonIntercept[2] 0.021750 0.011600 0.032570 0.005440 48 0.0010
bWeightSeasonSlope[2] 0.180600 0.083400 0.280600 0.048900 55 0.0010
bWeightSlope 3.166000 2.484000 3.796000 0.316000 21 0.0010
sWeight 0.083378 0.080859 0.085947 0.001342 3 0.0010
sWeightSiteIntercept 0.006850 0.000430 0.015580 0.004040 110 0.0010
sWeightSiteYearIntercept 0.010050 0.002090 0.016570 0.003550 72 0.0010
sWeightYearIntercept 0.079300 0.033000 0.222700 0.051300 120 0.0010
sWeightYearSlope 0.273800 0.112000 0.724100 0.166300 110 0.0010
tCondition1 -0.114800 -0.335800 0.030600 0.089500 160 0.1171
tCondition2 -0.379000 -1.066000 0.339000 0.339000 180 0.2044
Convergence Iterations
1.07 4e+05

Occupancy - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -1.224 -2.474 0.109 0.684 100 0.0819
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.613 -0.653 1.882 0.664 210 0.3414
bOccupancySeason[2] -0.039 -0.616 0.501 0.288 1400 0.8983
sOccupancySite 2.221 1.461 3.349 0.498 43 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.172 0.684 1.969 0.337 55 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Occupancy - Burbot

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -2.217 -3.299 -1.223 0.545 47 0.0010
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.260 -1.191 1.824 0.775 580 0.7705
bOccupancySeason[2] -0.520 -1.174 0.118 0.325 120 0.1138
sOccupancySite 0.995 0.597 1.633 0.270 52 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.418 0.820 2.406 0.422 56 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Occupancy - Lake Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -1.143 -2.1020 -0.1420 0.5160 86 0.0360
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.834 -0.6250 2.4020 0.7670 180 0.2535
bOccupancySeason[2] -5.048 -6.9420 -3.6790 0.8420 32 0.0010
sOccupancySite 0.502 0.1994 0.9398 0.1829 74 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.377 0.8490 2.2610 0.3780 51 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.01 10000

Occupancy - Northern Pikeminnow

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -2.154 -3.316 -1.088 0.563 52 0.0010
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.342 -1.050 1.834 0.719 420 0.6288
bOccupancySeason[2] -2.080 -3.144 -1.166 0.480 48 0.0010
sOccupancySite 1.552 0.901 2.673 0.448 57 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.127 0.575 2.080 0.379 67 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Occupancy - Redside Shiner

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -2.426 -4.201 -0.647 0.854 73 0.0060
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.128 -1.614 1.920 0.901 1400 0.8863
bOccupancySeason[2] -1.050 -1.767 -0.307 0.368 69 0.0020
sOccupancySite 2.268 1.389 3.751 0.592 52 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.571 0.894 2.655 0.457 56 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Occupancy - Sculpins

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bOccupancy -0.123 -1.429 1.380 0.713 1100 0.8424
bOccupancyRegime[2] 0.721 -1.444 2.758 1.066 290 0.4871
bOccupancySeason[2] -0.515 -1.095 0.038 0.283 110 0.0699
sOccupancySite 1.348 0.867 2.120 0.322 46 0.0010
sOccupancyYear 1.974 1.260 3.115 0.481 47 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.03 10000

Count - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.0729 -0.4452 0.2967 0.1887 510 0.7126
bDistribution -0.5171 -0.8011 -0.2393 0.1389 54 0.0010
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.2913 0.0833 0.5151 0.1117 74 0.0180
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.0467 -0.1532 0.0554 0.0549 220 0.4032
bRate 0.2990 -0.0574 0.6268 0.1567 110 0.0779
bRateRegime[2] -0.6380 -1.3960 0.1270 0.3640 120 0.0839
sDensitySite 1.3050 0.8160 2.0700 0.3340 48 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.6810 0.5026 0.8982 0.1000 29 0.0010
sDispersion 0.8675 0.7429 0.9837 0.0626 14 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.1374 0.0269 0.2819 0.0617 93 0.0010
sRateYear 0.5470 0.0860 1.2360 0.3130 100 0.0010
tAbundance -0.6380 -1.3960 0.1270 0.3640 120 0.0839
tDistribution 0.2913 0.0833 0.5151 0.1117 74 0.0180
Convergence Iterations
1.1 1e+05

Count - Burbot

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.7060 -1.2800 -0.1550 0.2790 80 0.0040
bDistribution -0.0528 -0.3122 0.2233 0.1409 510 0.6587
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.0570 -0.3251 0.4114 0.1845 650 0.6707
bDistributionSeason[2] 0.0832 -0.1266 0.3084 0.1118 260 0.4691
bRate 0.5050 -0.2470 1.3300 0.4420 160 0.2615
bRateRegime[2] -1.4850 -3.2230 -0.0200 0.8270 110 0.0440
sDensitySite 0.8660 0.4830 1.5310 0.2560 60 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.3672 0.0034 0.7553 0.2088 100 0.0010
sDispersion 1.2176 0.9491 1.4882 0.1373 22 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.2304 0.0267 0.5579 0.1437 120 0.0010
sRateYear 1.3340 0.6920 2.3310 0.4350 61 0.0010
tAbundance -1.4850 -3.2230 -0.0200 0.8270 110 0.0440
tDistribution 0.0570 -0.3251 0.4114 0.1845 650 0.6707
Convergence Iterations
1.09 1e+05

Count - Northern Pikeminnow

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -2.4190 -3.7240 -1.2750 0.6320 51 0.0010
bDistribution -0.4532 -0.7562 -0.1982 0.1397 62 0.0020
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.0663 -0.3287 0.4841 0.1996 610 0.7446
bDistributionSeason[2] 0.0370 -0.3462 0.3919 0.1882 1000 0.8264
bRate 0.3850 -0.2370 1.0400 0.2980 170 0.1897
bRateRegime[2] -0.3050 -1.5380 0.8490 0.5700 390 0.5290
sDensitySite 0.4466 0.0358 0.9717 0.2490 100 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.6536 0.1812 1.0738 0.2182 68 0.0010
sDispersion 1.3827 1.1355 1.6656 0.1374 19 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.2462 0.0352 0.5179 0.1290 98 0.0010
sRateYear 0.8740 0.3700 1.7000 0.3360 76 0.0010
tAbundance -0.3050 -1.5380 0.8490 0.5700 390 0.5290
tDistribution 0.0663 -0.3287 0.4841 0.1996 610 0.7446
Convergence Iterations
1.09 1e+05

Count - Suckers

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.47310 -0.66710 -0.29070 0.09560 40 0.0010
bDistribution -0.14720 -0.26050 -0.04500 0.05440 73 0.0040
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.13150 0.01800 0.26160 0.06150 93 0.0239
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.15980 -0.21930 -0.09940 0.03130 38 0.0010
bRate 0.04800 -0.06700 0.13790 0.04860 210 0.3235
bRateRegime[2] 0.27540 0.01720 0.54480 0.12980 96 0.0417
sDensitySite 0.42070 0.25750 0.66980 0.11070 49 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.45150 0.34430 0.56380 0.05650 24 0.0010
sDispersion 0.77174 0.72422 0.82041 0.02447 6 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.08510 0.02460 0.15850 0.03550 79 0.0010
sRateYear 0.19820 0.01140 0.46250 0.11780 110 0.0010
tAbundance 0.27540 0.01720 0.54480 0.12980 96 0.0417
tDistribution 0.13150 0.01800 0.26160 0.06150 93 0.0239
Convergence Iterations
1.06 4e+05

Movement - Bull Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength 0.004532 0.001354 0.007935 0.001719 73 0.0040
bLengthSeason[2] 0.002620 -0.008590 0.015860 0.006530 470 0.7226
bMoved -1.794000 -3.224000 -0.329000 0.755000 81 0.0160
bMovedSeason[2] -0.140000 -5.830000 4.830000 2.770000 3700 0.9721
Convergence Iterations
1.03 10000

Movement - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength -0.00080 -0.00736 0.00587 0.00350 830 0.8484
bLengthSeason[2] -0.02673 -0.04152 -0.01343 0.00754 53 0.0010
bMoved 0.08200 -1.60200 1.77700 0.89300 2100 0.9681
bMovedSeason[2] 5.56500 2.29000 9.09300 1.80200 61 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.02 10000

Movement - Rainbow Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength 0.00815 -0.00441 0.02242 0.0069 160 0.2256
bLengthSeason[2] 0.24690 0.04820 0.46450 0.1124 84 0.0010
bMoved -2.77500 -6.33500 0.38600 1.7480 120 0.0919
bMovedSeason[2] -75.20000 -140.20000 -15.50000 33.9000 83 0.0010
Convergence Iterations
1.06 10000

Movement - Largescale Sucker

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength -0.01028 -0.02261 0.00193 0.00626 120 0.0969
bLengthSeason[2] -0.15750 -0.30300 -0.03170 0.06730 86 0.0190
bMoved 4.27000 -0.97000 9.69000 2.74000 120 0.1140
bMovedSeason[2] 69.20000 13.50000 132.30000 29.70000 86 0.0209
Convergence Iterations
1.03 40000

Observer Length Correction - Bull Trout

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 0.9529 0.8811 1.0310 0.0444 8 0.001
bLength[3] 0.8416 0.7569 0.9150 0.0371 9 0.001
bLength[4] 0.8173 0.7504 0.8900 0.0364 9 0.001
bLength[5] 0.9343 0.8278 1.0011 0.0583 9 0.001
bLength[6] 0.9813 0.8819 1.0818 0.0518 10 0.001
sLength[1] 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 3.9900 1.0000 12.2800 3.2400 140 0.001
sLength[3] 4.5200 1.0700 11.2200 2.9300 110 0.001
sLength[4] 5.0100 1.2700 11.7600 2.8600 100 0.001
sLength[5] 1.4870 1.0030 4.9560 1.2520 130 0.001
sLength[6] 8.4000 1.5000 18.9200 4.6800 100 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.84 80000

Observer Length Correction - Mountain Whitefish

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 1.01345 0.99375 1.03306 0.00997 2 0.001
bLength[3] 0.92466 0.91076 0.93896 0.00729 2 0.001
bLength[4] 0.67133 0.65696 0.68561 0.00714 2 0.001
bLength[5] 0.97418 0.95437 0.99450 0.01016 2 0.001
bLength[6] 0.84852 0.81775 0.87775 0.01551 4 0.001
sLength[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 4.12000 3.29000 5.02700 0.44600 21 0.001
sLength[3] 1.84650 1.43940 2.33420 0.23590 24 0.001
sLength[4] 3.07800 2.52100 3.66900 0.28500 19 0.001
sLength[5] 4.30400 3.65300 4.99500 0.33400 16 0.001
sLength[6] 6.53600 5.22200 7.90300 0.69700 21 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1 10000

Observer Length Correction - Suckers

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bLength[1] 1.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0 0.001
bLength[2] 0.964830 0.944890 0.973280 0.007820 1 0.001
bLength[3] 0.923171 0.919766 0.926995 0.001886 0 0.001
bLength[4] 0.729610 0.719260 0.740340 0.005370 1 0.001
bLength[5] 0.928880 0.907080 0.951390 0.011590 2 0.001
bLength[6] 0.712590 0.674280 0.752620 0.019830 5 0.001
sLength[1] 1.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0 0.001
sLength[2] 1.495000 1.001000 3.733000 0.863000 91 0.001
sLength[3] 1.032900 1.001100 1.107700 0.030200 5 0.001
sLength[4] 3.650000 2.569000 4.794000 0.573000 30 0.001
sLength[5] 6.432000 5.010000 7.941000 0.755000 23 0.001
sLength[6] 12.384000 10.485000 14.527000 1.014000 16 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.19 80000

Abundance - Bull Trout - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.32600 -0.89700 0.30100 0.30000 180 0.2675
bDistribution 0.05450 -0.04210 0.14180 0.04760 170 0.2436
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.02520 -0.06020 0.10260 0.04140 320 0.5090
bDistributionSeason[2] 0.12230 0.06390 0.18040 0.03090 48 0.0010
bEfficiency -3.51470 -3.73420 -3.30420 0.11430 6 0.0010
bEfficiencySeason[2] 0.05600 -0.57500 0.61200 0.29600 1100 0.8164
bRate 0.01960 -0.04720 0.09630 0.03480 370 0.5290
bRateRegime[2] -0.03780 -0.18640 0.10830 0.07360 390 0.4951
bType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.0010
bType[2] 1.90700 1.26200 2.71400 0.37300 38 0.0010
sDensitySite 0.45890 0.29000 0.73340 0.11460 48 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.41680 0.32860 0.51030 0.04560 22 0.0010
sDispersion 0.44050 0.36840 0.50760 0.03590 16 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.02941 0.00142 0.07863 0.02098 130 0.0010
sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear 0.22390 0.13410 0.31680 0.04520 41 0.0010
sRateYear 0.10440 0.01550 0.22910 0.05610 100 0.0010
tAbundance -0.03780 -0.18640 0.10830 0.07360 390 0.4951
tDistribution 0.02520 -0.06020 0.10260 0.04140 320 0.5090
Convergence Iterations
1.08 1e+05

Abundance - Bull Trout - Juvenile

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] 0.3250 -0.2070 0.9690 0.2990 180 0.2767
bDistribution -0.0224 -0.1562 0.1261 0.0719 630 0.7304
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.0390 -0.0850 0.1588 0.0631 310 0.4836
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.0182 -0.0898 0.0518 0.0358 390 0.6428
bEfficiency -3.0385 -3.3095 -2.7879 0.1351 9 0.0010
bEfficiencySeason[2] -0.3260 -0.9470 0.2120 0.2960 180 0.2588
bRate 0.1141 -0.0321 0.2608 0.0724 130 0.1015
bRateRegime[2] -0.1990 -0.4652 0.0552 0.1285 130 0.1155
bType[1] 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0 0.0010
bType[2] 0.9151 0.5661 1.4327 0.2327 47 0.0010
sDensitySite 0.6658 0.4148 1.0565 0.1616 48 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.1787 0.0191 0.3345 0.0839 88 0.0010
sDispersion 0.4089 0.3034 0.5218 0.0561 27 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.0801 0.0094 0.1677 0.0407 99 0.0010
sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear 0.2608 0.1593 0.3706 0.0540 41 0.0010
sRateYear 0.2023 0.1045 0.3697 0.0678 66 0.0010
tAbundance -0.1990 -0.4652 0.0552 0.1285 130 0.1155
tDistribution 0.0390 -0.0850 0.1588 0.0631 310 0.4836
Convergence Iterations
1.05 2e+05

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.59550 -0.80400 -0.40300 0.10200 34 0.0010
bDistribution 0.08950 -0.00590 0.19980 0.05180 120 0.0699
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.02880 -0.05830 0.12410 0.04480 320 0.4991
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.07079 -0.10931 -0.03343 0.02035 54 0.0010
bEfficiency -3.92200 -4.03810 -3.81420 0.05740 3 0.0010
bEfficiencySeason[2] 0.90380 0.70870 1.09890 0.10080 22 0.0010
bRate 0.00245 -0.02132 0.03157 0.01406 1100 0.9601
bRateRegime[2] -0.02810 -0.11030 0.03890 0.03710 270 0.4152
bType[1] 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.00000 0 0.0010
bType[2] 1.74900 1.27000 2.36900 0.28900 31 0.0010
sDensitySite 0.49770 0.31460 0.75820 0.11930 45 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.35470 0.28930 0.42410 0.03400 19 0.0010
sDispersion 0.47594 0.44493 0.51210 0.01728 7 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.05650 0.01160 0.11480 0.02600 91 0.0010
sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear 0.21350 0.16180 0.27210 0.02890 26 0.0010
sRateYear 0.04550 0.00180 0.13840 0.03630 150 0.0010
tAbundance -0.02810 -0.11030 0.03890 0.03710 270 0.4152
tDistribution 0.02880 -0.05830 0.12410 0.04480 320 0.4991
Convergence Iterations
1.04 1e+05

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Juvenile

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] 0.1560 -1.0370 1.4590 0.6190 800 0.7676
bDistribution 0.0930 -0.0945 0.2948 0.0982 210 0.3423
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.0361 -0.1095 0.1815 0.0733 400 0.5599
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.0951 -0.1650 -0.0307 0.0352 71 0.0040
bEfficiency -5.8280 -6.7450 -5.0770 0.4330 14 0.0010
bEfficiencySeason[2] 0.4730 -0.8140 1.6800 0.6130 260 0.3917
bRate 0.0511 -0.5181 0.4359 0.2192 930 0.6924
bRateRegime[2] -0.1370 -0.7800 0.6200 0.3340 510 0.5579
bType[1] 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0 0.0010
bType[2] 1.0560 0.6190 1.6830 0.2770 50 0.0010
sDensitySite 0.8865 0.5648 1.4141 0.2272 48 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.4598 0.3276 0.6026 0.0701 30 0.0010
sDispersion 0.5700 0.4733 0.6671 0.0488 17 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.0711 0.0053 0.1853 0.0452 130 0.0010
sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear 0.2757 0.1593 0.4130 0.0627 46 0.0010
sRateYear 0.4129 0.1731 0.8990 0.1981 88 0.0010
tAbundance -0.1370 -0.7800 0.6200 0.3340 510 0.5579
tDistribution 0.0361 -0.1095 0.1815 0.0733 400 0.5599
Convergence Iterations
1.06 8e+05

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Adult

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bDensitySeason[2] -0.0380 -1.3610 1.5310 0.7370 3800 0.8983
bDistribution -0.3427 -0.6279 -0.0794 0.1429 80 0.0140
bDistributionRegime[2] 0.2387 -0.0323 0.5276 0.1453 120 0.0739
bDistributionSeason[2] -0.0573 -0.2244 0.1262 0.0922 310 0.5130
bEfficiency -2.9030 -3.5880 -2.2780 0.3350 23 0.0010
bEfficiencySeason[2] -0.2070 -1.8490 1.0870 0.7410 710 0.8324
bRate 0.0488 -0.2321 0.3751 0.1449 620 0.7006
bRateRegime[2] -0.1289 -0.6186 0.3176 0.2283 360 0.5150
bType[1] 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0 0.0010
bType[2] 5.0620 0.2300 9.7350 2.8290 94 0.0010
sDensitySite 1.0860 0.6050 1.9230 0.3370 61 0.0010
sDensitySiteYear 0.4393 0.0342 0.8017 0.1972 87 0.0010
sDispersion 0.4867 0.0754 0.8710 0.2142 82 0.0010
sDistributionYear 0.1307 0.0088 0.3499 0.0919 130 0.0010
sEfficiencySessionSeasonYear 0.2623 0.0129 0.5585 0.1515 100 0.0010
sRateYear 0.2637 0.0283 0.6476 0.1647 120 0.0010
tAbundance -0.1289 -0.6186 0.3176 0.2283 360 0.5150
tDistribution 0.2387 -0.0323 0.5276 0.1453 120 0.0739
Convergence Iterations
1.05 1e+05
Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
sTrend 0.47770 0.3383 0.63530 0.07700 31 0.001
sValue 0.74922 0.7042 0.79973 0.02495 6 0.001
Convergence Iterations
1.03 1e+05

Scale Age

Parameter Estimate Lower Upper SD Error Significance
bIntercept 1.3317 1.1054 1.5972 0.1246 18 0.0007
bInterceptAger[2] -0.4677 -0.6772 -0.2784 0.1003 43 0.0007
bSlope 0.7363 0.6397 0.8130 0.0427 12 0.0007
bSlopeAger[2] -0.0145 -0.0745 0.0566 0.0327 450 0.6040
sInterceptEncounterID 0.5542 0.4557 0.6493 0.0501 17 0.0007
sInterceptEncounterIDAger 0.2977 0.1659 0.4226 0.0685 43 0.0007
sSD[1] 0.7120 0.6384 0.7999 0.0427 11 0.0007
sSD[2] 0.4980 0.4521 0.5526 0.0256 10 0.0007
Convergence Iterations
1.06 2000

Figures

Growth

figures/growth/growth.png
Figure 1. Predicted growth curve by species.

Growth - Bull Trout

figures/growth/BT/year.png
Figure 2. Predicted von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, k, by year (with 95% CRIs).

Growth - Mountain Whitefish

figures/growth/MW/year.png
Figure 3. Predicted von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, k, by year (with 95% CRIs).

Growth - Rainbow Trout

figures/growth/RB/year.png
Figure 4. Predicted von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, k, by year (with 95% CRIs).

Condition

figures/condition/length.png
Figure 5. Predicted length-mass relationship by species.

Condition - Bull Trout - Juvenile

figures/condition/BT/juvenile/year.png
Figure 6. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 300 mm juvenile Bull Trout.
figures/condition/BT/juvenile/site.png
Figure 7. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 300 mm juvenile Bull Trout.

Condition - Bull Trout - Adult

figures/condition/BT/adult/year.png
Figure 8. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 500 mm adult Bull Trout.
figures/condition/BT/adult/site.png
Figure 9. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 500 mm adult Bull Trout.

Condition - Mountain Whitefish - Juvenile

figures/condition/MW/juvenile/year.png
Figure 10. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 100 mm juvenile Mountain Whitefish.
figures/condition/MW/juvenile/site.png
Figure 11. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 100 mm juvenile Mountain Whitefish.

Condition - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/condition/MW/adult/year.png
Figure 12. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 250 mm adult Mountain Whitefish.
figures/condition/MW/adult/site.png
Figure 13. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 250 mm adult Mountain Whitefish.

Condition - Rainbow Trout - Juvenile

figures/condition/RB/juvenile/year.png
Figure 14. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 150 mm juvenile Rainbow Trout.
figures/condition/RB/juvenile/site.png
Figure 15. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 150 mm juvenile Rainbow Trout.

Condition - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/condition/RB/adult/year.png
Figure 16. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 300 mm adult Rainbow Trout.
figures/condition/RB/adult/site.png
Figure 17. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 300 mm adult Rainbow Trout.

Condition - Largescale Sucker - Juvenile

figures/condition/CSU/juvenile/year.png
Figure 18. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 300 mm juvenile Largescale Sucker.
figures/condition/CSU/juvenile/site.png
Figure 19. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 300 mm juvenile Largescale Sucker.

Condition - Largescale Sucker - Adult

figures/condition/CSU/adult/year.png
Figure 20. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by year for a 500 mm adult Largescale Sucker.
figures/condition/CSU/adult/site.png
Figure 21. Body condition effect size estimates (with 95% CRIs) by site for a 500 mm adult Largescale Sucker.

Occupancy - Rainbow Trout

figures/occupancy/RB/year.png
Figure 22. Estimated occupancy of Rainbow Trout at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/RB/site.png
Figure 23. Estimated occupancy of Rainbow Trout at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Occupancy - Burbot

figures/occupancy/BB/year.png
Figure 24. Estimated occupancy of Burbot at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/BB/site.png
Figure 25. Estimated occupancy of Burbot at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Occupancy - Lake Whitefish

figures/occupancy/LW/year.png
Figure 26. Estimated occupancy of Lake Whitefish at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/LW/site.png
Figure 27. Estimated occupancy of Lake Whitefish at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Occupancy - Northern Pikeminnow

figures/occupancy/NPC/year.png
Figure 28. Estimated occupancy of Northern Pikeminnow at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/NPC/site.png
Figure 29. Estimated occupancy of Northern Pikeminnow at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Occupancy - Redside Shiner

figures/occupancy/RSC/year.png
Figure 30. Estimated occupancy of Redside Shiner at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/RSC/site.png
Figure 31. Estimated occupancy of Redside Shiner at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Occupancy - Sculpins

figures/occupancy/CC/year.png
Figure 32. Estimated occupancy of Sculpins at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/occupancy/CC/site.png
Figure 33. Estimated occupancy of Sculpins at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Species Richness

figures/richness/year.png
Figure 34. Estimated species richness at a typical site by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/richness/site.png
Figure 35. Estimated species richness at a site in a typical year (with 95% CRIs).

Count - Rainbow Trout

figures/count/RB/year.png
Figure 36. Estimated lineal river count density of Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/RB/site.png
Figure 37. Estimated lineal river count density of Rainbow Trout by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/RB/distribution.png
Figure 38. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/RB/rate.png
Figure 39. Estimated population growth rate of Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Count - Burbot

figures/count/BB/year.png
Figure 40. Estimated lineal river count density of Burbot by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/BB/site.png
Figure 41. Estimated lineal river count density of Burbot by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/BB/distribution.png
Figure 42. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Burbot by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/BB/rate.png
Figure 43. Estimated population growth rate of Burbot by year (with 95% CRIs).

Count - Northern Pikeminnow

figures/count/NPC/year.png
Figure 44. Estimated lineal river count density of Northern Pikeminnow by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/NPC/site.png
Figure 45. Estimated lineal river count density of Northern Pikeminnow by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/NPC/distribution.png
Figure 46. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Northern Pikeminnow by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/NPC/rate.png
Figure 47. Estimated population growth rate of Northern Pikeminnow by year (with 95% CRIs).

Count - Suckers

figures/count/SU/year.png
Figure 48. Estimated lineal river count density of Sucker by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/SU/site.png
Figure 49. Estimated lineal river count density of Sucker by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/SU/distribution.png
Figure 50. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Sucker by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/count/SU/rate.png
Figure 51. Estimated population growth rate of Sucker by year (with 95% CRIs).

Movement - Bull Trout

figures/movement/BT/length.png
Figure 52. Probability of recapture at the same site versus a different site by fish length and season (with 95% CRIs).

Movement - Mountain Whitefish

figures/movement/MW/length.png
Figure 53. Probability of recapture at the same site versus a different site by fish length and season (with 95% CRIs).

Movement - Rainbow Trout

figures/movement/RB/length.png
Figure 54. Probability of recapture at the same site versus a different site by fish length and season (with 95% CRIs).

Movement - Largescale Sucker

figures/movement/CSU/length.png
Figure 55. Probability of recapture at the same site versus a different site by fish length and season (with 95% CRIs).

Observer Length Correction

figures/observer/density.png
Figure 56. Observed and corrected length density plots for measured versus counted fish by observer and species.
figures/observer/bias.png
Figure 57. Predicted length inaccuracy relative to measures by observer and species (with 95% CRIs).
figures/observer/error.png
Figure 58. Predicted imprecision relative to measured by observer and species (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance

figures/abundance/multiplier.png
Figure 59. Recorded count versus expected catch by site, species and stage.

Abundance - Bull Trout - Adult

figures/abundance/BT/Adult/abundance.png
Figure 60. Abundance of Adult Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Adult/site.png
Figure 61. Estimated lineal river count density of Bull Trout by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Adult/distribution.png
Figure 62. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Adult/efficiency.png
Figure 63. Capture efficiency for Adult Bull Trout by session and year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Adult/rate.png
Figure 64. Estimated population growth rate of Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Bull Trout - Juvenile

figures/abundance/BT/Juvenile/abundance.png
Figure 65. Abundance of Juvenile Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Juvenile/site.png
Figure 66. Estimated lineal river count density of Bull Trout by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Juvenile/distribution.png
Figure 67. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Juvenile/efficiency.png
Figure 68. Capture efficiency for Juvenile Bull Trout by session and year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/BT/Juvenile/rate.png
Figure 69. Estimated population growth rate of Bull Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Adult

figures/abundance/MW/Adult/abundance.png
Figure 70. Abundance of Adult Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Adult/site.png
Figure 71. Estimated lineal river count density of Mountain Whitefish by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Adult/distribution.png
Figure 72. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Adult/efficiency.png
Figure 73. Capture efficiency for Adult Mountain Whitefish by session and year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Adult/rate.png
Figure 74. Estimated population growth rate of Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Mountain Whitefish - Juvenile

figures/abundance/MW/Juvenile/abundance.png
Figure 75. Abundance of Juvenile Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Juvenile/site.png
Figure 76. Estimated lineal river count density of Mountain Whitefish by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Juvenile/distribution.png
Figure 77. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Juvenile/efficiency.png
Figure 78. Capture efficiency for Juvenile Mountain Whitefish by session and year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/MW/Juvenile/rate.png
Figure 79. Estimated population growth rate of Mountain Whitefish by year (with 95% CRIs).

Abundance - Rainbow Trout - Adult

figures/abundance/RB/Adult/abundance.png
Figure 80. Abundance of Adult Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/RB/Adult/site.png
Figure 81. Estimated lineal river count density of Rainbow Trout by site in 2010 (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/RB/Adult/distribution.png
Figure 82. Estimated effect of centred river kilometre on log(Density) for Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/RB/Adult/efficiency.png
Figure 83. Capture efficiency for Adult Rainbow Trout by session and year (with 95% CRIs).
figures/abundance/RB/Adult/rate.png
Figure 84. Estimated population growth rate of Rainbow Trout by year (with 95% CRIs).

Species Diversity (Evenness)

figures/evenness/year.png
Figure 85.
figures/evenness/site.png
Figure 86.
figures/dfa/fit.png
Figure 87. Standardised variables by year with the predicted values as black lines.
figures/dfa/mds.png
Figure 88. Non-metric multidimensional plot showing clustering of standardised variables by trend weightings (stress = 12.7).

Short-Term Correlations

figures/cor/data.png
Figure 89. Variable residuals by year.
figures/cor/mds.png
Figure 90. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot showing clustering of variables by absolute correlations of short-term variation (stress = 36.6).

Scale Age

figures/scale/age.png
Figure 91. Estimated mean scale age of Mountain Whitefish by actual age and ager (with 95% CRIs). Note that the (jittered) data lies mostly outside of the CRIs because those are not prediction intervals.
figures/scale/increments.png
Figure 92. Increment in observed scale age by number of years elapsed since the first encounter of a fish, by ager and season of encounter. The points are jittered for better visibility.

Significance

The following table summarises the significance levels for the management hypotheses tested in the analyses where Condition1 is the effect of the regime change on weight for big and small fish and Condition2 is the effect on big relative to small fish. The Direction column indicates whether significant changes were positive or negative where a positive change for Distribution indicates a shift towards the dam.

Test Species Stage Significance Direction
Growth Mountain Whitefish 0.4152
Growth Rainbow Trout 0.4851
Growth Bull Trout 0.8823
Condition1 Mountain Whitefish 0.0040 -
Condition1 Rainbow Trout 0.9761
Condition1 Bull Trout 0.0060 -
Condition1 Largescale Sucker 0.1171
Condition2 Mountain Whitefish 0.4152
Condition2 Rainbow Trout 0.5430
Condition2 Bull Trout 0.5015
Condition2 Largescale Sucker 0.2044
Abundance Mountain Whitefish Juvenile 0.5579
Abundance Mountain Whitefish Adult 0.4152
Abundance Rainbow Trout 0.0839
Abundance Rainbow Trout Adult 0.5150
Abundance Bull Trout Juvenile 0.1155
Abundance Bull Trout Adult 0.4951
Abundance Sucker 0.0417 +
Abundance Burbot 0.0440 -
Abundance Northern Pikeminnow 0.5290
Distribution Mountain Whitefish Juvenile 0.5599
Distribution Mountain Whitefish Adult 0.4991
Distribution Rainbow Trout 0.0180 +
Distribution Rainbow Trout Adult 0.0739
Distribution Bull Trout Juvenile 0.4836
Distribution Bull Trout Adult 0.5090
Distribution Sucker 0.0239 +
Distribution Burbot 0.6707
Distribution Northern Pikeminnow 0.7446

Acknowledgements

The organisations and individuals whose contributions have made this analysis report possible include:

References

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